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Full text of "The history of King Philip's war ; also of expeditions against the French and Indians in the eastern parts of New-England, in the years 1689, 1690, 1692, 1696 and 1704. With some account of the divine providence towards Col. Benjamin Church"

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flPyCfcg SI 






Lewis F. Lang f eld 








1692, i696 AND 1704. WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF 













Hi&ton : 



District of JHasfitocftttBctt*-- to wit : 


BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the eighth day of August, A. D. 
1825, in the fiftieth year of the Independence of the United States of Amerl 
im, Samuel G. Drake, of the said District, has deposited in this Office the 
Title of a Book the Right whereof he claim as Proprietor, in the Word: 
following, to wit: 

" The History of King Philip s War; also of Expeditions against the 
French and Indians in the Eastern parts of New-England, in the years 1689, 
1690, 1692, 1696, and 1704; with some account of the divine providence 
towards Col. Benjamin Church. By his son, Thomas Church, Esq. To 
which is now added, an Index, copious Noies and Correction?, Also an 
Appendix, containing a sketch of the Discovery of America; Landing of 
the Pilgrims at Plymouth, together with the most important Indian Wars to 
the time of the Creek War. By SAMUEL G. DRAKE/ 

In Conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled 
c An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by secuiing the Copies of 
Maps, Charts and Books, to the Auihors and Proprietors of such Copies, 
during the times therein mentioned;" and also to an Act entitled " An Act 
supplementary loan Act, entitled, An Act for the Encouragement of Learn 
ing, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts and Books to the Authors and 
Proprietors of such Copies during the times therein mentioned; and extern 1 
.! the Benefits thereof to the Arts of Designing, Engraving and Etchb 
Imiorical and other Prints." 

JNO. W. DAVIS, Clerk of the District of MazsacJ, useits. 





Addington, Isaac, Biography of, Note, 175. 

Agawom, situation of, 95, 116, 275. 

Akkompoin, Philip s Uncle, killed, 87. 

Alden, William, Mr. procures Pilot, 191. 

Alden, John, Capt. 193, 199, 202. 

Alderman, deserts Weetamore, 35. Kills Philip, 101. 

America, Discovery of, 265 to 268. 

Amrascoggin, Fort, 153. Taken, 154. 

Andros, Capt. 161, 168. 

Andros, Edmund, Sir, Biography of, Note, 121. Sent out 
of the country, 140. 

ANNAWON, Mr. B. Rodman s opinion of writing the word, 
Note, 99, 255. Is pursued by Capt. Church, 102. His 
camp described, Note., 110. Is taken, 111. Makes a 
speech to Capt. Church, 1 14. Presents him with Philip s 
royal robe, 115. Is sent to Plymouth, ib. Put to 
death, 117. 

Awashonks, entertains Philip s men, 16. Makes war dance 
and invites Mr. Church, ib. Mr. Church s advice to her, 
19. Wishes to join the English, ib. Is visited again by 
Mr. Church, 58. Agrees on terms of peace, 61. Makes 
a great dance and entertain s Mr. Church, 71. Her 
men s manner of becoming soldiers, ib. Volunteer to 
fight Philip, 72. 

Ashumequin, Philip s father, 115. 

Autose Towns, destroyed, 301. 


Baker, an English captive, escapes, 157. 

Barker, Lt. pursues the enemy at Menis, 239. Killed, 240. 

Barrow, Sam, executed, 95. 

Beasely Major, killed in the massacre at Fort Mims, 300. 

Belcher,Andrew, Capt. relieves the army after the great 
Swamp Fight, 46. 

Belcher, Mr. wounded, 24. 

Boon, Capt. his adventures, 294, 295. 

Bracket, Anthony, 159, 190, 200, 201. 

Braddock, General, his defeat, 292, 293. 

Brodford, Major, 22, 64, 75. 


srv INDEX. 

Rradstreet, Gov. Biography of, Note, 122. 

Braton, Stephen, assists Mr. Church, 164. 

*Hdgway, Jarman, 193, 194, 195. 

.Brown, Capt. 216, 245. 

.Brown, James, Rev. sent to treat with Philip, 21. 

Brunswick burned, 288. 

Butler, Gen. killed, 297, 


("Jabots, John. Sebastian, discoveries of, 268. 

Canso, destroyed, 289. 

Canton, Corporal, wounded and taken, 198. 

rape Sable, 196. 

( \ rver, John, first Gov. of New England, 272. 

t tisco, distresses of, 139 to 140. Destroyed, 143, 255. 

f astine, Baron, 132, 143, 190, 192, 225. 

Cawiey, Robert, Pilot, 191, 193. 

Chatahouchie, battle of, 302. 

Chubb, Capt. surrenders Pemaquid Fort, 255 to 257. 

Church, Benjamin, Mr. attends Awashonks war dance, 16. 
Hears of Philip s war dance, 20. Visits Awashonks, 21. 
Joins Maj. Bradford s army, 22. Goes with Capt. Fuk 
kr into Pocasset to treat with the Indians, 27. His ex 
traordinary escape from the battle of the Peasfield, 28 
to 34. Visits, Weetamore s camp, 37. Accompanies 
Gov. Winslow, 39. An exploit, 40. Wounded in the 
battle of the great Swamp, 44. Goes into the Nipmuck 
country, 47. His encounter with a Mohegan Indian, 48. 
Kemoves to Rhode Island, 52. Meets some Indians at 
SogkonatG point, 54, 55, 56. Meets Awashonks, 57. 
Her men join the English, 62. Meets Awashonks again, 
70. Is commissioned Captain, 72. Surprises the enemy 
at Middleboro , 73 Takes the Mumponsets, 74. At 
tacks the enemy in a Swamp, 76. Ambushed by Philip, 
84. Takes Philip s wife and son, 87. Philip escapes 
him, 90. Fights him in a Swamp, 92. Escapes Totoson 
93. Takes 173 prisoners, ib. Surprises Phiiip, 99. 
Goes in pursuit of Annawon, 102. Takes him, 111. 
Entraps Tispaquin, 117. Is commissioned Major, 123. 
His first eastern expedition, 131. Drives ofi the Indians 
from Casco, 134. Returns home, 139. Is treated ill, 
143. Goes on a second expedition east, 144. Takes 
Amrascoggin Fort, 154. Engages the enemy at Winter 
Harbour, 157. Attacked at Perpodack, 160. Returns 
to Boston, 163. Is ill treated by the Government, ib. 


H"is sacrifices, 164. Goes on his third expedition, 173. 
His fourth eastern expedition, 182. A skirmish at St. 
John s River, 198. Takes St. John s "Fort, ib. Is su- 
perceded, 202. His last eastern expedition, 207. Re 
quests the Governor to be sent against Port Royal, 217. 
Takes Penobscot, 225. Takes the town of Menis, 238. 
Threatens Port Royal, 241. Returns home, 250. Sketch 
of his life, 259. His death, 262. 

Church, Caleb, 164,259. 

Church, Edward, Captain, 216, 245, 239. 

Church, Constant, Capt. 216, 222, 239, 245. 

Clark s garrison destroyed, 53, 253. 

Coffee, General, defeats the Indians, 300. 

Cole, James, Capt. 216, 228, 245. 

Columbus, life of, -Vote, 265 to 267. 

Converse, Capt. 159. 

Cook, John, Capt. 216, 222, 245. 

Creek War, 300 to 302. 

Cut worth, Major, 22. 


Davenport, Capt. killed, JVote, 41. 
Davis, Sylvanus, Capt. JVote, 130. 
Deerfield, destroyed, 207, 287, 288. 
Dillano, Mr. 80 to 83. 
Doney, Old, 154, 157. 
Dover, situation of, JVbte, 155. 
Drake, Col. wounded, 297. 
Dudley, Joseph, Gov. 214,221,250, 
Dyer, John, Capt. 216, 245. 


Earl, Ralph, Capt. remonstrates against selling Indians as 

slaves out of the Colony, 38. 
Edee, Sergeant, 233. 
Edmunds, Capt. meets Philip, 39. 
Eels, Capt, remonstrates against selling Indians as slaves 

out of the Colony, 38. 
Eldriges, their exploits, 40. 
Eliot, Capt. his exploit, 289: 
Enotachopco, battle of, 301. 


Fellows, Mr. Pilot, 221,235. 
Floyd, Gen. defeats the Indians, 302, 
Fobes, William, 79, 176, 181, 182. 


Francis, Prophet, 301. 

Frenchtown, Massacre at, 209. 

Fuller, Capt. 26.-. His escape from Pocasset, 27, 253. 


Gallop, Captain, 219. 

Gardner, Capt. killed, 41. 

George, sent by Awashonks to invite Mr. Church to her 

Avar dance, 16. His conference with Mr. Church on Sog- 

koiifite point, 55. 
Gidney, Col. 187. 

Giles, Lieut, sent to demand the surrender of Menis, 236. 
(rill, Quartermaster, wounded, 24. 
Gokling, Capt. relieves Mr. Church from the battle of the 

Peasfield, 34. At, the taking of Philip, 97. 
Gorham, Col. 219, 227, 235, 237, 245. 
Gorton, Samuel, Mr. Biography of, JVote, 20. Sent to treat 

with Philip, 21. 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, discovers New-England, 268. 
Gourdan, Monsieur, 223, 228, 229, 231, 235. 


Ilakins, Capt. 155, 157, 161. 

Hall, Capt. 137. 

Harmer, Gen. his expedition and defeat, 296. 

Fiarmlon, Capt. 221, 245. 

Harrison, Gov. and Gen. defeats Indians at Tippecanoe,297. 
Defeats Proctor and Tecumseh at Moravian Town, 299. 

Hathorne, Col. 202 to 206. 

Havens, Jack, 66, 70. 

Hazelton, Charles, Interpreter, 16. 

Hilton, Major, 221, 227, 235, 237, 238, 239, 244, 245. 

Hinkley, Gov. 146. 

Horse-Shoe-Bend, battle of, 302. 

Howlandj Isaac, 91. 

Rowland, Jabez, 66,70. 

Hubbard, Mr. his defence of the government, Ao/e, 118. 
Takes notice of Mr. Church s exploit, ./Vote, 35. Errone 
ous, ./Vote, 118. Biography of, Note, 261. 

Huckings, Capt. his wife, 155, 156. 

Hunter, Capt. his expedition and exploit, 37. 

Hutchinson s observations on. the superceding of Col 
Church, Abfo, 202. 



Ibberville takes Pemaquid Fort, 255 to 257. 

Indians, mortality among, 281. Threaten the destruction 

of Boston, 254. 
Ipswich, called Agawom, 95. 


Jackson, Gen. defeats the Indians, 301. 

Jacobs, Lieut, falls upon the Indians at Sudbury, 257. 

Jarvis, Capt. 235. 

Johnson, Capt. killed, JVbfe, 44. 

Johnson, Col. kills Tecumseh, 299. 

John s River, St. 192, 196, 197, 198, 202, 204, 205. 

Jones, Capt. brings the Pilgrims to Plymouth, 269. 


Keekamuit, situation of, 25. 

Kennebeck, 138. Battle at the river of, 181. 

Kittery, situation of, JYbte, 209. 


Lafaure, taken, 222. 

Lahane, 193, 197. 

Lake, in command, at battle of the Peasfield, 2$. 

Lamb, Capt. 216, 245. 

Lateril, Mr. 200. 

Lee, Mrs. 132. Gives information of the enemy, ib. 

Le Faver, 228. 

Leveret, Gov. Biography of, JVbfe, 117. 

Lightfoot, 78, 83, 103, 105, 134. 

Little-Eyes, his ill intentions, 18. Taken, 77. 

Losing-Fort, 35. 

Lovewell s Fight, 290, 291. 

Low, Anthony, takes Mr. Church to N. Port, 63, 

Lucus, killed at Swamp Fight, 92. 


Machias, 200, 220, 226. 

Mason, Capt. defeats Pequots, 285. 

Massasoit, visits the Pilgrims, 282. 

Matapoiset, men killed, 23. Situation of, Note, 105 

Maxfield, Mr. 144. 

Mayr-Point, 158. 

Menis, taking of, 236 to 239. 

Merrymeeting-Bay, destroyed, 288. 

Mile s Garrison, 23. 

Mirns ; Fort, Massacre at ; 300. 

Vlll INDEX. 

Mohawks, JVbfc, 50. 

Mohegan, a story of, 47 to 50. 

Montinicus, 219. 

Montreal, destruction of, 286. 

Moravian Town, battle of, 299. 

Morse, Dr. erroneous, Note v. 254. 

Morton, supplied Indians with arms, Sec. JVofe, 18. 

Moulton, Capt. expedition, 289. Takes Norridgewook, 290, 

Mount Desart, 186, 220, 225, 246. 

Mount Hope, situation of, JVofc, 17. 

Myrick, Capt. 216, 228, 245. 


Narragansets, suspected, 39. Join Philip, 50. 
Naskeag, 200. 

Mathaniel, his expedition with Light Foot, 100. 
Nipmucks, join Philip, 50. 

Norridgewock, 201. Visited, 288. Taken, 289. 
Numposh, Capt. of Seconet Indians, 138. 


Oldham, Mr. murdered by Pequots, 285. 
Oyster river, situation of, 155. 


Page, Col. 121. 

Paine, John, Lieut. 193. 

Passernaquaddy, 200, 220, 224, 226, 241, 247. 

Patuxet, burning of, 54. 

Peasefield, battle of, 28 to 34. Situation of, 30. Date of 
battle, 253. 

Pejepscot, Fort, taken, 144, 232. 

Pemaquid, situation of, 181, taking of, 255. 

Penobscot, 201, 205, 220, 224, 225, 227. 

Pequots, war with, 285. 

Peter, Awashonks 7 son, 56. Goes with Mr. Church to New 
port, 63. Is sent express to Plymouth, 64. At the tak 
ing of Philip, 99. 

Philip, King of Mount-Hope, sends to Awashonks to engage 
her against the English, 16, 17. Suffers his men to fall 
upon Swansey, 22. Is pursued by the Army, 25. His 
escape, 38. Flees his country, 39. Is annoyed by the 
Mohawks, 50. Capt. Turner makes spoil upon him, ib. 
Destroys Sudbury, ib. Ambushes and kills Capt. Wads- 
worth and 50 men, JVc/ f , ib. At the destroying of Clark s 
Garrison, 75. Lays in Ambush for Capt. Church, 84. 


A narrow escape, 87. His wife and son taken, ib. Kil* 

led, 99. 

Phips, Gov. Biography of, JVbte, 173. 
Pike, Maj. 151, 152. 
Plymouth, settlement of, 268 to 270. 
Poeahontas, story of, 283, 284. 
Pocasset, situation of, 20. Fort, 39. 
Ponaganset, JVbfe, 38. 
Popasquash, situation of, JVo/e, 102. 

Port-Royal, 213,216, 217, 220 to 222, 235, 236, 241, 244v 
Portsmouth, situation of, JVbfe, 131. 
Proctor, Gen. Defeated, 280. 
Providence, burning of, 54, 254. 
Pumham s escape, 40. 
Punkateese, (supposed to be the Pease Field,) 67. 


Quebeck, 190, 241, 255. 
Quinnapin, 81, 87. 


Ralle, French Priest, killed, 290. 

Rasiri, River, Massacree at, 298. 

Rehoboth, burning of, 254. 

Reynolds, Capt. deceives Plymouth settlers, 269. 

Rogers, Capt. 222, 246. 

Roundhead, Indian Chief, 298. 

Russell s Garrison, JVbfe, 38. 


Sabin, Mr. Church s Pilot, 67. 
Sassarnon, sent by Awashonks to invite Mr. Church to her 

dance, 16. Is murdered by Philip s men, 20. 
Savage, Ensign, wounded, 25. 
Scattacook, Philip s quarters, 50. 
Schenectady, destruction of, 236. 
Scottaway, Capt. 139. 
Sharkee, Monsieur, 223, 233, 234, 24T. 
Signecto, 220, 223, 246. 
Sippican, situation of, 84, 116. 
Smith, John, Capt. surveys the coast of New-England, 268. 

Story of, 283, 284. 
Smith. Thomas, Capt. 221, 222, 246. 
Southack, Capt. 219, 235, 246. 
Southworth, B. in the battle of the Peas Field, 32. 
Southworth, Capt. 138, 160, 


It has by many been solicited, that the old history should 
be given them entire; that is, in the same language and 
style of the old; others-, that it should appear in a more 
modern style. But it will be recollected, that in the pro 
posals issued for its republication, it was particularly ex 
pressed, to publish it " without alteration." By so doing, 
it was thought, we should best comply with the wishes of 
the majority of our patrons. And in the language of the 
author, to let it "go down to posterity with its own inter 
nal marks of originality." 

It is therefore presented with no material alteration in 
style; it being plain and simple, and that always becomes a 

A multitude of literal errors have been detected, inas^- 
much, as the nature of the work would admit. 

Much care and attention have been taken in preparing an 
Index to the whole work. This very essential companion 
was not added to the former editions, nor was it so neces 
sary as to the present; but it is too much neglected by the 
generality of Book Makers. In a book of three or four 
hundred pages, unless a person be very well acquainted 
with it, he will soon lose as much time in searching for par 
ticulars, as would be required to make an Index. This 
among two or three thousand people is no small sum to lose, 
for " time is money." In short, a book without an Index, 
" is as a man deprived of the faculty of speech." 

Nearly all the Notes have been added to this edition; all, 
excepting at page 20, 23, 25, 30, the last at 35, that at 40, 
the first at 46, the one at 47, the second and third at 50, 
that at 64, the two at 65, the one at 69, the one at 77, that 
at 83, the first at 95, that at 102, the first at 105, that at 
107, the first at 116. 

With regard to the Appendix, great pains have been 
taken to collect the most important facts, and to dispose 
and treat them in the best manner. And no pains nor ex 
penses have been spared to render the whole work, as good 
as possible, in its execution. 

The publisher takes this opportunity of returning his 
grateful respects to all who have patronized him in his un 
dertaking, and with pleasure subscribes himself, their much 
obliged, and very humble servant. 


fotlon, June 17, 1825. 

THE subject of this following narrative, offering itself to 
your friendi y perusal, relates to thf former and later wars of 
New-England, which I myself was not a little concerned in: 
For in the year 1675, that unhappy arid bloody Indian war 
broke ont in Plymouth colony, where I was then building, 
and beginning a plantation at a place called by the Indians 
Sogkonate, and since by the English Little-Compton. I 
was the first Englishman that built upon that neck, which 
was full of Indians. My head and hands were full about 
settling a new plantation where nothing was brought to; 
no preparation of dwelling-house, or out-houses, or fencing 
made. Horses and cattle were to be provided, ground to 
be cleared and broken up; and the utmost caution to be 
used, to keep myself free from offending my Indian neigh 
bours all round about me. While I was thus busily employ 
ed, and all my time and strength laid out in this laborious 
undertaking, I received a commission from the government 
to engage in their defence: and with my commission I re 
ceived another heart, inclining me to put forth my strength 
in military service: and through the grace of God I w r as 
spirited for that work, and direction in it was renewed to 
me day by day. And although many of the actions that I 
was concerned in were very difficult and dangerous, yet my 
self, and those who went with me voluntarily in the ser 
vice, had our lives, for the most part, wonderfully preserv 
ed, by the overruling hand of the Almighty, from first to 
last; which doth aloud bespeak our praises: and to declare 
his wonderful works is our indispensable duty. I was ever 



Southworth, Nathaniel, 68. 

Splitlog, Indian Chief, 298. 

Squanto, visits the pilgrims, 282. 

St. Clair s defeat, 296. 

Sudbury, burned, 50, 257. 

Swarizey, Philip s men begin the war at, 22.- 


Taconnock, Fort, taken, 181. 

Talcot, Maj. 94. 

Tallapoose Towns, destroyed, 391. 

Talledga, battle of, 301. 

Tallushalches, battle of, 300. 

Tecumseh, death of, 299. 

Tippecano-e, battle of, 297. 

Tispaquin, Capt. 75. Is beset by Church in a swamp, 91. 

Delivers himself up, 118. Is put to death, ib. 
Toby, 68, his mother taken, ib. 

Totoson, attacked in a swamp, 91. Escapes, 92. Dies, 95. 
Turner, Capt. makes spoil upon Philip, 50. 
Tyask s wife taken, 84. 


Vilboon, 196, 199. 
Villeau, taken, 203. 


Waldron, Maj. his daughter, 131. Biography of, JVb/e, 155. 

Walley, Maj. 131, l44, 173, 182. 

Warwick, desolation of, 54, 254. 

Washington s expedition, 291, 292. 

Wayne, Gen. defeats the Indians, 297. 

Weetamore, 35. 

Westbrook, Col. his expedition, 289. 

Wetuset-Hills, Philip s quarters, 50. 

Whale-Boats, effects of, 206, 242. 

White, Gen. defeats the Indians, 301. 

Wllcox, Daniel, 57. * 

Williams, Mr. Rev. and family captivated, 207, 287, 2E8. 

Williams, Roger, 50. 

Williamson, Capt. 216, 245. 

Winslow, Josiah, Gov. 39, 118. 


York, Joseph, Pilot, 189. 


THE first edition of this history was printed at Boston, 
in 1716, in a quarto form. It was reprinted in Newport, 
in 1772, and being the most minute, as well as most authen 
tic account of Philip s war, it has always beer, sought after 
by all who have known of its existence. And notwithstand 
ing the style, &c. in which it was written, it was read With 
eagerness until it almost entirely disappeared. Its repub- 
lication has often been suggested, and by a number of dif 
ferent persons; but for want of exertion, or energy, or both, 
it did not appear. The present publisher was induced to 
undertake it from a conviction, that, " every particle of his 
torical truth is precious," but more especially, when relating 
to such an early period of our history. Therefore, he flat 
ters himself, that this will be taken as a sufficient apolojrf 
for his appearance before the public at this time, and begs 
ercuse from the fashionable task of the present day, of 
making apologies about apologies, &c. &c. 

It has often been mentioned, and by those supposed to be 
considerably well acquainted with the history of our coun 
try, that Mr. Church s history is all comprised in other 
works; to such, I will only observe, that some authors have 
taken up parts of it, but no one, nor all of them, have taken 
up the whole. Even Hutchinson, who generally went into 
particulars, professes not to go into the particulars of Phil 
ip s war; yet, he takes notice of the particular questions 
and answers of the witch affairs of Salem. Hubbard is 
more particular than most authors on that war, but the ac 
counts do not exactly agree with those of Mr. Church, 
whose correctness has never been doubted, nor does he en 
ter into all the particulars. 

Some who have pretended to treat particularly of Phil 
ip s war, have entirely omitted the* extraordinary enter 
prise of Capt. Church, in the surprise and capture of ANNA- 
WON. To omit which in this history, is what it would be to 
omit the capture of Lord Cornwallis in a history of the 


very sensible of my own littleness, and unfitness to be em 
ployed in such great services; but calling to mind that God 
is strong, I endeavoured to put all my confidence in him, 
and by his almighty power was carried through every diffi 
cult action: and my desire is that his name may have the 

It was ever my intent, having laid myself under a solemn 
promise, that the many and repeated favours of God to my 
self, and those with me in the service, might be published 
for generations to come. And now my great age requiring 
my dismission from service in the militia, and to put off my 
armour, I am willing that the great and glorious works of 
Almighty God, to us children of men, should appear to the 
world; and having my minutes by me, my son has taken 
the care and pains to collect from them the ensuing narra 
tive of many passages relating to the former and latter 
wars; which I have had the perusal of, and find nothing 
amiss as to the truth of it; and with as little reflection upon 
any particular person as might be, either alive or dead. 

And seeing every particle of historical truth is precious; 
I hope the reader will pass a favourable censure upon an 
old soldier, telling of the many rencounters he has had, and 
yet is come off alive. It is a pleasure to remember what 
a great number of families, in this and the neighbouring 
provinces in New-England, did, during the war, enjoy a 
great measure of liberty and peace by the hazardous sta 
tions and marches of those engaged in military exercises, 
who were a wall unto them on this side and on that side. 

I desire prayers, that I may be enabled well to accom 
plish my spiritual warfare, and that I may be more than 
conqueror through Jusus Christ loving of rne. 






IN the year 1674 Mr. Benjamin Church, of 
Duxbury, being providentially at Plymouth, in 
the time of the court, fell into acquaintance with 
Capt. John Akny, of Rhode-Island. Capt. Al- 
my, with great importunity, invited him to ride 
with him, and view that part of Plymouth Colony 
that lay next to Rhode-Island, known then by 
their Indian names of Pocasset and Sogkomite. 
Among other arguments to persuade him, he told 
him the soil was very rich, and the situation pleas 
ant: persuades him by all means to purchase of 
the company some of the court grant rights. He 
accepted his invitation, views the country, and 
was pleased with it; makes a purchase, settled a 
farm, found the gentlemen of the Island very civil 
and obliging. And being himself a person of un 
common activity and industry, he soon erected two 
buildings upon his farm, and gained a good ac 
quaintance with the natives; got much into their 
favour, and was in a little time in great esteem 

among them. 


The next spring advancing, while Mr. Church 
was diligent!)/ settling his new farm, stocking, leas 
ing and disposing of his affairs, and had a fine pros 
pect of doing no small things; and hoping that his 
good success would be inviting to other good men to 
become his neighbours: Behold! the rumour of a 
war between the English and the natives gave check 
to his projects. People began to be very jealous 
of the Indians, and indeed they had no small rea 
son to suspect, that they had formed a design of war 
upon the English. Mr. Church had it daily sug 
gested to him that the Indians were plotting a 
bloody design. That Philip, the great Mount- 
Hope Sachem, was leader therein; and so it prov 
ed, he was sending his messengers to all the neigh 
bouring Sachems, to engage them into a confede 
racy with him in the war. 

Among the rest he sent six men to Awashonks, 
Squaw Sachem of the Sogkonate Indians, to en 
gage her in his interest: Awashonks so far listen 
ed unto them, as to call her subjects together, to 
make a great dance, which is the custom of that 
nation when they advise about momentous affairs. 
But what does Awashonks do, but sends away 
< wo of her men that well understood the English 
language, Sassamon and George by name, to in 
vite Mr. Church to the dance. Mr. Church upon 
?he invitation, immediately takes with him Charles 
Hazelton, his tenant s son, who well understood 
the Indian language, and rode down to the place 
appointed; where they found hundreds of Indians 
gathered together from all parts of her dominion. 
Awashonks herself, in a foaming sweat, was lead 
ing the dance; but she was no sooner sensible of 
Mr. Church s arrival, but she broke off, sat down. 


calls her nobles round her, orders Mr. Church to 
be invited into her presence; compliments being 
past, and each one taking seats, she told him, 
King Philip had sent six men of his, with two of 
her people, that had been over at Mount-Hope,* 
to draw her into a confederacy with him, in a war 
with the English, desiring him to give her his advice 
in the case, and to tell her the truth, whether the 
Uupame men, as Philip had told her, were gath 
ering a great army to invade Philip s country? 
He assured her he would tell her the truth, and 
give her his best advice; then he told her it was 
but a few days since he came from Plymouth, and 
the English were then making no preparations for 
war; that he was in company with the principal 
gentlemen of the government, who bad no dis 
course at all. about war; and he believed no thoughts 
about it. He asked her, whether she thought he 
would have brought up his goods to settle in that 
place, if he apprehended an entering into war with 
so near a neighbour? [She seemed to be somewhat 
convinced by his talk, and said she believed he 
spoke the truth. 

Then she called for the Mount-Hope men, 
who . made a formidable appearance, with their 
faces painted, and their hair trimmed up in comb- 
fashion, with their powder-horns and shot-bags at 
their backs ; which among that nation is the pos- 

* Or Mont-Hanp, a mountain in Bristol. 

This eminence is about two miles norteasterly from the 
village of Bristol. It is very steep on all sides. Its sumii 
is a large rock, apparently composed of small pebbles, on 
which is now standing a small octagonal building, 8 or 10 
feet in diameter, and proportionally high. About this 
mount was the residence of King Philip, which renders it 


ture and figure of preparednes for war. She told 
Mr. Church these were the persons that had 
brought her the report of the English prepara 
tions for war, and then told them what Mr. 
Church had said in answer to it. 

Upon this began a warm talk among the In 
dians, but it was SOOR silenced, and Awashonks 
r>ofteded to tell Mr. Church, that Philip s mes- 
W to \*zr was, that unless she would forthwith 
* T into a confederacy with him, in a war against 
, the English, he would send his men over private 
ly, 1o kill the English cattle, and burn their hous 
es on that side the river, which would provoke 
the English to fall upon her, whom they would 
without doubt suppose the author of the mischief. 
Mr. Church told her he was sorry to see so 
threatning an aspect of affairs ; and stepping to 
the Mount-Hopes, he felt of their bags, and find 
ing them filled with bullets, asked them what 
those bullets were for? They scoflingly replied, 
to shoot Pigeons with.* 

Then Mr. Church turned to Awashonks, and 
told her if Philip was resolved to make war, her 
best way would be to knock those six Mount- 
Hopes on the head, and shelter herself under 
the protection of the English ; upon which the 
Mount- Hopes were for the present dumb. But 
those two of Awashonk s men, who had been at 
Mount- Hope, expressed themselves in a furious 
manner against his advice. And Little-Eyes, 
one of the Queen s council, joined with them, 

* A man by the name of Morton, who came over soon 
after the first settlers, is said to have been the first that 
supplied the Indians with arms and ammunition in these 


and urged Mr. Church to go aside with him 
among the bushes, that he might have some pri 
vate discourse with him, which other Indians im 
mediately forbid, being sensible of his evil design. 
But the Indians began to side and grow very 
warm. Mr. Church, with undaunted courage, 
told the Mount-Hopes they were bloody wretch 
es, and thirsted after the blood of their English 
neighbours, who had never injured them, but had 
always abounded in their kindness to them ; that 
for his own part, though he desired nothing more 
than peace, yet, if nothing but war would satisfy 
them, he believed he should prove a sharp thorn 
in their sides ; bid the company observe those 
men that were of such bloody dispositions, wheth 
er Providence would suffer them to live to see the 
event of the war, which others, more peaceably 
disposed, might do. 

Then he told Awashonks he thought it might 
be most advisable for her to send to the Governor 
of Plymouth, and shelter herself and people under 
his protection. She liked his advice, and desired 
him to go on her behalf to the Plymouth govern 
ment, which he consented to : and at parting ad 
vised her. whatever she did, not to desert the En 
glish interest, and join with her neighbors in a 
rebellion which would certainly prove fatal to her. 
He moved none of his goods from his house, that 
there might not be the least umbrage from such 
an action. She thanked him for his advice, and 
sent two of her men to guard him to his house ; 
which when they came there, urged him to take 
care to secure his goods, which he refused for the 
reasons before mentioned ; but desired the Indians, 
that if what they feared should happen, that they 


would take care of what he left, and directed 
them to a place in the woods where they should 
dispose of them ; which they faithfully observed. 
He took his leave of his guard and bid them 
tell their mistress, that if she continued steady in 
her depcndance on the English, and kept within 
her own limits of Sogkonate, he would see her 
again quickly ; and then hastened away to Pocas- 
et,* where he met with Peter Nunnuit, the bus- 
land of the Queen of Poeasset, who was just 
then come over in a canoe from Mount -Hope. 
{(Peter told him that there would certainly be war ; 
for Philip had held a dance of several weeks con- 
tinuance, and had entertained the young men 
from all parts of the country ; and added, that 
Philip expected to be sent for to Plymouth; to be 
examined about Sassamon s death, who was mur 
dered at Assawomset Ponds,| knowing himself 
guilty of contriving that murder. The same 
Peter told him that he saw Mr. James Brown of 
Swanzey, and Mr. Samuel Gorton,J who was an 

* Tiverton shore, over against the north end of Rhode- 

| Mi ddlebo rough. 

j This appears to be the same Mr. Gorton, a sectarian, 
who was accused of " causing much noise in New England," 
in supporting his religous tenets. lie came to Boston in. 
1636 from London. He was thought to be an heretic, but 
from examination it was not certain. He soon went to 
Plymouth, but did not stay long before he went to Rhode- 
Island ; here it is said his offence was such, that he was im 
prisoned, and afterwards whipped. He went to Providence 
in 1640, where he was very humanely treated by Mr. Roger 
Williams. He settled at Patuxet, and here he was accused of 
seizing on the estates of people. The governor of Massa 
chusetts ordered him to answer to the same, which he re 
fused, treating the messenger with contempt. But he was 
arrested, carried to Boston, and had his trial, and a cruel 


interpreter, and two other mm, who brought a 
letter from the Governor of Plymouth to Philip. 
He observed to him further, that the young men 
w r ere very eager to begin the war, and would fain 
have killed Mr. Brown, but Philip prevented it ; 
telling them that his father had charged him to 
show kindness to Mr. Brown. In short, Philip 
was forced to promise them, that on the next 
Lord s Day, when the English were gone to 
meeting, they should rifle their houses, and from 
that time forward kill their cattle. 

Peter desired Mr. Church to go and see his 
wife, who was but just up the hill ; he went and 
found but few of her people with her. She said 
they were all gone against her will, to the dances; 
and she much feared there would be a war. Mr. 
Church advised her to go to the island and secure 
herself, and those that were with her ; and send 
to the Governor of Plymouth, who she knew was 
her friend ; and so left her, resolving to hasten to 
Plymouth, and wait on the Governor. And he 
was so expeditious that he was with the Governor 
early next morning, though he waited on some of 
the magistrates by the w r ay, who were of the 
council of war, and also met him at the Gover 
nor s. He gave them an account of his observa 
tions and discoveries, which confirmed their for 
mer intelligences, and hastened their preparation 
for defence. 

Philip, according to his promise to his people, 

sentence was passed on him ; being confined a whole winter 
at Charles town in heavy irons, then banished out of the 
colony. At length he was permitted to enjoy quiet posses 
sion of his estate at Fatuxet, where he lived to an ad 
vanced age. 


permitted them to march out of the neck on the 
next Lord s Day, when they plundered the near 
est houses that the inhabitants had deserted : hut 
as yet offered no violence to the people, at least 
none were killed.* However the alarm was giv 
en by their numbers and hostile equipage, and by 
the prey they made of what they could find in 
the forsaken houses. 

An express came the same day to the Gover 
nor, who immediately gave orders to the captains 
of the towns to march the greatest part of their 
companies, and to rendezvous at Taunton, on 
Monday night, where Major Bradford was to re 
ceive them, and dispose them under Capt. (now 
made Major) Cutw r orth,f of Scituate. The Gov 
ernor desired Mr. Church to give them his com 
pany, and to use his interest in their behalf, with 
the gentlemen of Rhode-Island. He complied 
with it, and they marched the next day. Major 
Bradford desired Mr. Church, with a commanded 
party, consisting of English and some friendly 
Indians, to march in the front, at some distance 
from the main body. Their orders were to keep 
so far before as not to be in sight of the army. 
And so they did, for by the way they killed a 
deer, fleed, roasted, and eat the most of him, be 
fore the army came up with them ; but the Ply 
mouth forces soon arrived at Swanzey, and were 
chiefly posted at Major Brown s and Mr. Mile s| 

* On the 24th of June, in the morning, one of the inhab 
itants of Rehoboth was fired upon by a party of Indians, 
and the hilt of his sword shot off. The same day several 
were killed at S\vanzey. HUTCHI.VSON. 


J The house of Mr. Miles, Minister of Swanzey, was 
converted into a garrison. 


garrisons ; and were there soon joined with those 
that came from Massachusetts, who had entered 
into a confederacy with their Plymouth brethren, 
against the perfidious heathens. 

The enemy, who began their hostilities with 
plundering, and destroying cattle, did not long 
content themselves with that game ; they thirsted 
for English blood, and they soon broached it ; 
killing two men in the way not far from Mr. 
Mile s garrison ; and soon after, eight more at 
Mattapoiset ;* upon whose bodies they exercised 
more than brutish barbarities ; beheading, dis 
membering and mangling them, and exposing them 
in the most inhuman manner ; which gashed and 
ghostly objects struck a damp on all beholders. 

The enemy, flushed with these exploits, grew 
yet bolder, and skulking every where in the bush 
es, shot at all passengers, and killed many that 
ventured abroad. They came so near as to shoot 
down two sentinels at Mr. Mile s garrison, under 
the very noses of most of our forces. These 
provocations drew out the resentment of some of 
Capt. Prentice s troops, who desired they might 
have liberty to go out and seek the enemy in their 
own quarters. Quarter Masters Gill and Belcher 
commanded the parties drawn out, who earnestly 
desired Mr. Church s company. They provided 
him a horse and furniture, his own being out of 
the way ; he readily complied with their desires, 
and was soon mounted. 

This party was no sooner .over Mile s bridge, 
but were fired upon by an ambuscade of about a 
dozen Indians, as they were afterwards discover- 

* In Swanzey 4 


ed to be. When they drew off, the pilot was 
mortally wounded Mr. Belcher received a shot 
in his knee, and his horse was killed under him. 
Mr. Gill was struck with a musket ball on the 
side of his belly ; but being clad with a buff coat, 
and some thickness of paper under it, it never 
broke his skin. The troopers were surprised to 
see both their commanders wounded, and wheeled 
off; but Mr. Church persuaded, at length storm 
ed and stamped, and told them it was a shame to 
run, and leave a wounded man there to become a 
prey to the barbarous enemy ; for the pilot yet 
sat on his horse, though so mazed with the shot, 
as not to have sense to guide him ; Mr. Gill se 
conded him, and offered, though much disabled, to 
assist in bringing him off. Mr. Church asked a 
stranger, who gave him his company in that action, 
if he would go with him and fetch off the wounded 
man. He readily consented, and they, with Mr. 
Gill, went ; but the wounded man fainted and fell 
dead from his horse before they came to him ; but 
Mr. Church and the stranger dismounted, took 
up the man, and laid him before Mr. Gill on his 
horse. Mr. Church told the other two, if they 
would take care of the dead man, he would go 
and fetch his horse back, which was going off the 
causey toward the enemy ; but before he got over 
the causey he saw the enemy run to the right into 
the neck. He brought back the horse, and called 
earnestly and repeatedly to the army to come over 
and fight the enemy ; and while he stood calling 
and persuading, the skulking enemy returned to 
their old stand, and all discharged their guns at 
him, though every shot missed him ; yet one of 
the army, on the other side of the river, received 


one of the balls in his foot. Mr. Church now 
Hfegan (no succour coming to him) to think in time 
to retreat; saying, "the Lord have mercy on us," 
if such a handful of Indians shall thus dare such 
an army ! 

Upon this it was immediately resolved, and or 
ders were given to march doAvn into the neck, 
and having passed the bridge and causeway, the 
direction was to extend both wings, which being 
not well heeded by those that remained in the 
centre, some of them mistook their friends for 
their enemies, and made a fire upon them in the 
right wing, and wounded that noble heroic youth, 
Ensign Savage, in the thigh, but it happily proved 
but a flesh wound. They marched until they 
came to the narrow of the neck, at a place called 
Keekamuit,* where they took down the heads of 
eight Englishmen that were killed at the head of 
Mattapoiset neck, and set upon poles, after the 
barbarous manner of those savages. There Philip 
had staved ail his drums, and conveyed all his 
canoes to the east side of Mattapoiset river ; 
hence it was concluded, by those that were ac 
quainted with the motions of those people, that 
they had quitted the neck. Mr. Church told 
them that Philip was doubtless gone ovsr to Po- 
casset side, to engage those Indians in rebellion 
with him ; which they soon found to be true. 
The enemy were not really beaten out of Mount- 
Hope neck, though it was true they fled from 
thence ; yet it was before any pursued them. It 
was only to strengthen themselves, and to gain a 
more advantageous post. However, some, and 

* Upper part of Bristol. 



not a few, pleased themselves with the fancy of a 
mighty conquest. 

A grand council was held, and a resolve passed 
to build a fort there, to maintain the first ground 
they had gained, by the Indians leaving it to 
them ; and to speak the truth, it must be said, 
that as they gained not that field by their sword, 
nor by their bow, so it was rather their fear than 
their courage, that obliged them to set up the 
marks of their conquest, Mr. Church looked 
upon it, and talked of it with contempt, and urged 
hard the pursuing of the enemy on Pocasset side, 
and with the greater earnestness, because of his 
promise made to Awashonks, before mentioned. 
The council adjourned themselves from Mount- 
Hope to llehoboth, where Mr. Treasurer South- 
worth, being weary of his charge of Commissary 
General, (provision being scarce and difficult to 
be obtained for the army, that now lay still to 
cover the people from no body, while they were 
building a fort for nothing) retired, nnd th power 
and trouble of that post was left with Mr. Church, 
who still urged the commanding officers to move 
over to Pocasset side, to pursue the enemy, arid 
kill Philip, which would in his opinion, be more 
probable to keep possession of the neck, than to 
tarry to build a fort. He was still restless on 
that side of the river, and the rather because of 
his promise to the Squaw Sachem of Sogkonate; 
and Capt. Fuller aiso urged the same, until at 
length there came further orders concerning the 
fort; and withal an order for Capt. Fuller with 
six files to cross the river to the side so much in 
sisted on, and to try if he could get speech with 
any of the Pocasset or Sogkonate Indians, and 


that Mr. Church should be his second. Upon 
the Captain s receiving his orders, he asked Mr. 
Church whether he was willing to engage in this 
enterprise ; to whom it was indeed too agreeable 
to be declined ; though he thought the enterprise 
was hazardous enough for them to have more men 
assigned them. Capt. Fuller told him, that for 
his own part he was grown ancient and heavy, he 
feared the travel and fatigue would be too much 
for him ; but Mr. Church urged him, and told 
him he would cheerfully excuse him his hardship 
and travel, and take that part to himself, if he 
might but go ; for he had rather do any thing in 
the world than to stay there to build the fort. 

Then they drew out the number assigned them, 
and marched the same night to the ferry, and 
were transported to Rhode-Island, from whence, 
the next night, they got passage over to Pocasset 
side, in Rhode-Island boats, and concluded there 
to dispose themselves into two ambuscades before 
day, hoping to surprise some of the enemy by 
their falling into one or other of their ambush- 
ments. But Capt. Fuller s party, being troubled 
with the epidemical plague, lust after tobacco, must 
needs strike fire to smoke it ; and thereby discov 
ered themselves to a party of the enemy coming 
up to them, who immediately fled with great pre 

This ambuscade drew off about break of day, 
perceiving they were discovered, the other contin 
ued in their post until the time assigned them, 
and the light and heat of the sun rendered their 
station both insignificant and troublesome, and 
then returned to the place of rendezvous, where 
they were acquainted with the other party s dis~ 


appointment, and the occasion of it. Mr. Church 
calls for the breakfast he had ordered to be 
brought over in the boat ; but the man that had 
the charge of it confessed that he was asleep 
when the boats-men called him, and in haste came 
itway, and never thought of it. It happened that 
Mr. Church had a few cakes of rusk in his pock- 
t t, that Madam Cranston (the governor of Rhode 
Island s lady) gave him when he came off the 
island, which he divided among the company, 
which was all the provisions they had. 

Mr. Church, after their slender breakfast, pro 
posed to Capt Fuller, that he would march in 
quest of the enemy, with such of the company as 
would be willing to march with him, which he 
complied with, though with a great deal of scru 
ple, because of his small number, and the extreme 
hazard he foresaw must attend them. 

But some of the company reflected upon Mr. 
Church, that notwithstanding his talk on the oth 
er side of the river, he had not shown them any 
Indians since they came over. Which now mov 
ed him to tell them, that if it was their desire to 
*ee Indians, he believed he should now soon show 
them what they should say was enough. 

T-he number allowed him soon drew off to him, 
which could not be many, because their whole 
company consisted of no more than thirty-six. 
They moved towards Sogkonate, until they came 
to the brook that runs into Numaquahqat neck, 
where they discovered a fresh and plain track, 
which they concluded to be from the great pine 
swamp, about a mile from the road that leads to 
Sogkonate. Now, says Mr. Church to his men, 
if we follow this track, no doubt but we shall 


soon see Indians enough. They expressed their 
willingness to follow the track, and moved in it, 
but had not gone far before one of them narrowly 
escaped being bit with a rattle-snake; and the 
woods that the track led them through was haunt 
ed much with those snakes, which the little com 
pany seemed more to be afraid of than the black 
serpents they were in quest of, and therefore bent 
their course another way, to a place where they 
thought it probable to find some of the enemy. 
Had they kept the track to the pine swamp, they 
had been certain of meeting Indians enough ; but 
not so certain that any of them would have return 
ed to give an account how many. 

Now they passed down into Punkatees neck ; 
and in their march discovered a large wigwam 
full of Indian stuff, which the soldiers were for 
loading themselves with, until Mr. Church forbid 
it, telling them they might expect soon to have 
their hands full, and business without caring for 
plunder. Then crossing the head of the creek 
into the neck, they again discovered fresh Indian 
tracks very lately passed before them into the 
neck. They then got privately and undiscovered 
to the fence of Capt. Almy s peas field, and di 
vided into two parties, Mr. Church keeping the 
one party with himself, sent the other with Lake, 
who was acquainted with the ground on the other 
side. Two Indians were soon discovered coming 
out of the peas field towards them ; when Mr. 
Church and those that were with him concealed 
themselves from them, by falling flat on the ground; 
but the other division not using the same caution, 
were seen hy the enemy, which occasioned them 
to run ; which, when Mr. Church perceived, he 


showed himself to them, and called, telling them 
he desired but to speak with them, and would not 
hurt them ; but they ran, and Church pursued. 
The Indians climbed over a fence, and one of 
them facing about discharged his piece, but with 
out effect, on the English. One of the English 
soldiers ran up to the fence and fired upon him 
that had discharged his piece ; and they concluded 
by the yelling they heard, that the Indian was 
wounded ; but the Indians soon got into the 
^xiekets, whence they saw them no more for the 

Mr. Church then marching over a plain piece 
of ground, where the woods were very thick on 
one side ; ordered his little company to march at 
a double distance, to make as big a show, if they 
should be discovered, as might be ; but before 
tht y saw any body, they were saluted with a vol 
ley of fifty or sixty guns ; some bullets came sur 
prisingly near Mr. Church, who starting, looked 
behind him, to see what was become of his men, 
expecting to have seen half of them dead, but 
seeing them all upon their legs, and briskly firing 
at the smokes of the enemies guns, for that was 
all that was then to be seen, he blessed God, and 
called to his men not to discharge all their guns at 
once, lest the enemy should take the advantage of 
such an opportunity to run upon them with their 

Their next motion was immediately into the 
peas field.* When they came to the fence, Mr. 
Church bid as many as had not discharged their 
guns, to clap under the fence, and lie close, while 

* Tiverton, about half a mile above Fogland ferry. 


the other at some distance in the field, stood to 
charge; hoping that if the enemy should creep to 
the fence, to gain a shot at those that were charg 
ing their guns, they might be surprised by those 
that lay under the fence; but casting his eyes to 
the side of the hill above them, the hill seemed to 
move, being covered over with Indians, with their 
bright guns glittering in the sun, and running in a 
circumference with a design to surround them. 

Seeing such multitudes surrounding him and his 
little company, it put him upon thinking what was 
become of the boats that were ordered to attend 
him; and looking up he spied them ashore at San 
dy-Point, on the island side of the river, with a 
number of horse and foot by them, and wondered 
what should be the occasion, until he was after 
wards informed, that the boats had been over that 
morning from the island, and had landed a party 
of men at Fogland, that were designed in Punka- 
tee s neck, to fetch off some cattle and horses, 
but were ambuscaded, and many of them wounded 
by the enemy. 

Now our gentleman s courage and conduct were 
both put to the test; he encourages his men, and 
orders some to run and take a wall for shelter be 
fore the enemy gained it. It was time for them 
now to think of escaping if they knew which way. 
Mr. Church orders his men to strip to their white 
shirts, that the islanders might discover them to 
be Englishmen; and then orders three guns to be 
fired distinct, hoping it might be observed by their 
friends on the opposite shore. The men that 
were ordered to take the wall, being very hungry, 
Stopped ;*,vh\le among the pease to gather a few, 
beii^ abjut four rods from the wall; the enemy 


from behind hailed them with a shower of bullets; 
but soon all but one came tumbling over an old 
hedge down the bank, where Mr. Church and the 
rest were, and told him that his brother, B. South- 
worth, who was the man that was missing, was 
killed, that they saw him fall; and so they did in 
deed see him fall, but it was without a shot, and 
lay no longer than till he had an opportunity to 
clap a bullet into one of the enemy s forehead, and 
then came running to his company. The mean 
ness of the English powder was now their greatest 
misfortune; when they were immediately beset 
with multitudes of Indians who possessed them 
selves of every rock, stump, tree or fence that was 
in sight, firing upon them without ceasing; while 
they had no other shelter but a small bank and bit 
of a water fence.* And yet, to add to the disad 
vantage of this little handful of distressed men, the 
Indians also possessed themselves of the ruins of 
a stone house that overlooked them; so that now 
they had no way to prevent lying quite open to 
some or other of the enemy, but to heap up stones 
before them, as they did, and still bravely and 
wonderfully defended themselves against all the 
numbers of the enemy. At length came over one 
of the boats from the island shore, but the enemy 
plied their shot so warmly to her as made her keep 
at some distance ; Mr. Church desired them to 
send their canoe ashore and fetch them on board; 
but no persuasions nor arguments could prevail 
with them to bring their canoe to shore; which 
some of Mr. Church s men perceiving, began to 

* This indeed will compare in the beginning, with Love- 
welPs Fight. See Appendix. 


cry out, " For God s sake to take them off, for 
their amunition was spent," &c. Mr. Church 
being sensible of the danger of the enemy s hear 
ing their complaints, and being made acquainted 
with the weakness and scantiness of their amuni 
tion, fiercely called to the boat s master, and bid 
him either send his canoe ashore, or else be gone 
presently, or he would fire upon him. 

Away goes the boat, and leaves them still to 
shift for themselves; but then another difficulty 
arose, the enemy seeing the boat leave them, were 
reanimated, and fired thicker and faster than ever; 
upon which some of the men that were lightest of 
foot, began to talk of attempting an escape by 
flight, until Mr. Church solidly convinced them 
of the impracticableness of it; and encouraged them 
by telling them, " That he had observed so much 
of the remarkable and wonderful providence of 
God in hitherto preserving them, that it encour 
aged him to believe, with much confidence, that 
God would yet preserve them; that not a hair of 
their head should fall to the ground; bid them be 
patient, courageous and prudently sparing of their 
amunition, and he made no doubt but they should 
come well oif yet," &,c. until his little army again 
resolved, one and all, to stay with, and stick by 
him. One of them, by Mr. Church s order, was 
pitching a flat stone up on end before him in the 
sand, when a bullet from the enemy, with a full 
force, struck the stone, while he was pitching it 
on end; which put the poor fellow in a miserable 
fright, till Mr. Church called upon him to observe 
" how God directed the bullets, that the enemy 
could not hit him when in the same place, yet 
could hit the stone as it was erected." 


While they were thus making the best defence 
they could against their numerous enemies, that 
made the woods ring with their constant yelling 
and shouting, and night coming on, somebody told 
Mr. Church, they spied a sloop up the river as far 
as Gold Island, that seemed to be coming down 
towards them. He looked up and told them " suc 
cour was now coming, for he believed it was Capt. 
Golding, whom he knew to be a man for buisness, 
and would certainly fetch them off, if he came. 55 
The wind being fair, the vessel was soon with 
them; and Capt. Golding it was. Mr. Church, 
as soon as they came to speak with one another, 
desired hi.n "to come to anchor at such a dis 
tance from the shore, that he might veer out his 
cable and ride afloat, and let slip his canoe, that 
it might drive ashore; 55 which direction Captain 
Golding observed; but the enemy gave him such 
a warm salute, that his sails, colour and stern 
were full of bullet holes. 

The canoe came ashore, but was so small that 
she would not bear above two men at a time; and 
when two were got aboard, they turned her loose 
to drive ashore for two more, and the sloop s com 
pany kept the Indians in play the while; but when 
at last it came to Mr. Church s turn to go aboard, 
he had left his hat and cutlass at the well where 
he went to drink, when he first came down; he 
told his company, u he would never go off and 
leave his hat and cutlass for the Indians; they 
should never have that to reflect upon him: 55 
though he was much dissuaded from it, yet he 
would go and fetch them. He put all the powder 
he had left into his gun, and a poor charge it was, 
and went presenting his gun to the enemy, until 


he took up what he went for; at his return he dis 
charged his gun at the enemy to bid them farewell 
for that time; but had not powder enough to carry 
the bullet half way to them. 

Two bullets from the enemy struck the canoe 
as he went on board, one grazed the hair of his 
head a little before; another stuck in a small 
stake that stood right against the middle of his 

Now this gentleman with his army, making in 
all 20 men,* himself and his pilot being numbered 
with them, got all safe on board after six hours 
engagement with 300 Indians; of whose number 
we were told afterwards by themselves; a de- 
liverence which that good gentleman often men 
tions to the glory of God and his protecting provi 
dence. The next day meeting with the rest of 
his little company, whom he had left at Pocasset, 
that had also a small skirmish with the Indians, 
and had two men wounded, they returned to the 
Mount-Hope garrison; which Mr. Church used to 
call the loosing fort. Mr. Church then return 
ing to the island, to seek provision for the army, 
meets with Alderman, a noted Indian, that was 
just come over from the Squaw Sachem s cape of 
Pocasset, having deserted from her, and brought 
over his family; who gave him an account of the 
state of the Indians, aud where each of the Saga 
more s head quarters were. Mr. Church then 
discoursed with some who knew the spot well 
where the Indians said Weetamore sf head quar- 

* Although some of these had scarce courage enough for 
themselves, yet their Captain had enough for himself, and 
some to spare for his friends. HUBBARD. 

f Squaw Sachem of Pocasset. 


ters were, and offered their service to pilot him. 
With this news he hastened to the Mount- Hope 
garrison. The army expressed their readiness to 
embrace such an opportunity. 

All the ablest soldiers were now immediately 
drawn off, equipped and despatched upon this de 
sign, under the command of a certain officer; and 
having marched about two miles, viz. until they 
came to the cove that lies southwest from the 
Mount, where orders were given for a halt, the 
commander in chief told them he thought it prop 
er to take advice before he went any further; call 
ed Mr. Church and the pilot, and asked them, 
" How they knew that Philip and all his men 
were not by that time got to Weetamore s camp; 
or that all her own men were not by that time re 
turned to her again?" with many more frightful 
questions. Mr. Church told him, " they had ac 
quainted him with as much as they knew, and 
that for his part he could discover nothing that 
need to discourage them from proceeding; that he 
thought it so practicable, that he, with the pilot, 
would willingly lead the way to the spot, and 
hazard the brunt. But the chief commander in 
sisted on this, " that the enemies number were 
so great, and he did not know what numbers more 
might be added to them by that time, and his 
company so small, that he could not think it prac 
ticable to attack them;" added moreover, cc that 
if he was sure of killing all the enemy, and knew 
that he must lose the life of one of his men in the 
action, he would not attempt it." " Pray Sir,, 
then," replied Mr. Church, "please to lead your 
company to yonder windmill, on Rhode- Island, 
and there they will be out of danger of being killed 


by the enemy, and we shall have less trouble to 
supply them with provisions." But return he 
would, and did, unto the garrison, until more, 
strength came to them, and a sloop to transport 
them to Fall river, in order to visit Weetamore s 
camp. Mr. Church, one Baxter, and Capt. Hun 
ter, an Indian, proffered to go out on a discovery 
on the left wing, which was accepted. They had 
not marched above a quarter of a mile before they 
started three of the enemy. Capt. Hunter wound 
ed one of them in his knee, whom, when he came 
up, he discovered to be his near kinsman; the cap 
tive desired favour for his squaw, if she should fall 
into their hands, but asked none for himself, ex 
cepting the liberty of taking a whiff of tobacco; 
and while he was taking his whiff, his kinsman 
with one blow of his hatchet despatched him. 
Proceeding to Weetamore s camp, they were dis 
covered by one of the enemy, who ran in and gave 
information, upon which a lusty young fellow left 
his meat upon his spit, running hastily out, told 
his companions, he would kill an Englishman be 
fore he eat his dinner; but failed of his design, 
being no sooner out than shot down. The enc- 
iny s fires, and what shelter they had was by the 
edge of a thick cedar swamp, into which, on this 
alarm, they betook themselves, and the English as 
nimbly pursued; but were soon commanded back 
by their chieftain*, after they were come within 
hearing of the cries of their women and children, 
and so ended that exploit; but returning to their 
sloop the enemy pursued them, and wounded two 
of their men. The next day they returned to the 
Mounl Hope garrison. 


Soon after this, was Philip s head quarters 
visited by some other English forces; but Philip 
and his gang had the very fortune to escape what 
Weetamore and her s had; they took into a 
swamp, and their pursuers were commanded back. 
After this Dartmouth s distresses required suc 
cour, a great part of the town being laid desolate, 
and many of the inhabitants killed; the most of 
Plymouth forces were ordered thither; and coming 
to Kussel s garrison at Ponaganset,* they met 
with a number of the enemy that had surrendered 
themselves prisoners on terms promised by Capt. 
Eels, of the garrison, and Ralph Earl, who per 
suaded them, by a friendly Indian he had employ 
ed, to come in. And had their promises to the 
Indians been kept, and the Indians fairly treated, 
it is probable that most, if not all the Indians in 
those parts had soon followed the example of those 
who had now surrendered themselves; which would 
have been a good step towards finishing the war. 

* Or Aponaganset, a river of Dartmouth. Whether this 
word ought to be written with or without the first A, is tin- 
certain; nor do I think it of much consequence; yet we 
ought to conform to the ancient manner, as most conducive 
to uniformity; for that is preferable in most cases. On 
the north side of this river, about a mile from its mouth, is 
to be seen the cellars of the old garrison;*opposite to which 
was an Indian fort. Tradition informs us, that some con 
siderable manoeuvering went on here in those days. A story 
is handed down of an Indian who was shot on the opposite 
shore on turning his back side in defiance. A similar one 
is related by the people of Middleboro , with considerable 
plausibility. But, whether it was possible for one man to 
shoot another at the distance mentioned there I cannot say, 
but should not hesitate to dispute that it could be done at 
the present day. "Whether a circumstance of this kind o\> 
curred at both these places too, is a doubt. 


But in spite of all that Capt. Eels, Church, or 
Earl, could say, argue, plead, or beg, somebody 
else that had more power in their hands improved 
it; and without any regard to the promises made 
them on their surrendering themselves, they were 
carried away to Plymouth, there sold, and trans 
ported out of the country, being about 160 per 
sons. An action so hateful to Mr. Church, that 
he opposed it to the loss of the good will and re 
spect of some that before were his good friends. 
But while these things were acting at Dartmouth, 
Philip made his escape, leaving his country, fled 
over T aim ton river, and Rehoboth plain, and 
Pautuxet river, where Capt. Edmunds, of Provi 
dence, made some spoil upon him, and had prob 
ably done more, but was prevented by the com 
ing of a superior officer, that put him by. And 
now another fort was built at Pocasset,* that 
proved as troublesome and chargeable as that at 
Mount Hope; and the remainder of the summer 
was improved in providing for the forts and forces 
there maintained, while our enemies were lied 
some hundreds of miles into the country, nearly as 
far as Albany. And now strong suspicions be 
gan to arise of the Narraganset Indians, that they 
were ill affected, and designed mischief; and so 
the event soon discovered. The next winter they 
began their hostilities upon the English. Th > 
united colonies then agreed to send an army to 
suppress them. Gov. Winslow was appointed to 
command the army. He, undertaking the expedi 
tion, invited Mr. Church to command a company 

* The main land against the easterly end of Rhode-Island, 
now Tiverton, \vas called Pocasset.- HUBBARD, 


in the expedition, which he declined, asking ex 
cuse from taking commission, he promised to wait 
upon him as a Reformado through the expedition. 
Having rode with the General to Boston, and 
from thence to Rehoboth, upon the General s 
request he went thence the nearest way over the 
ferries, with Major Smith, to his garrison in the 
Narraganset country, to prepare and provide for 
the coming of Gen. Winslow; who marched round 
through the country with his army, proposing by 
night to surprise Pumham,* a certain Narragan 
set Sachem, and his town; but being aware of the 
approach of our army, they made their escape into 
the desarts; but Mr. Church meeting with fair 
winds arrived safe at the Major s garrison in the 
evening, and soon began to inquire after the ene 
my s resorts, wigwams, or sleeping places; and 
having gained some intelligence, he proposed to 
the Eldridges, and some other brisk hands that he 
met with, to attempt the surprising of some of the 
enemy, to make a present of to the General, when 
he should arrive, which might advantage his de 
sign. Being brisk blades, they readily complied 
with the motion, and were soon upon their march. 
The night was very cold, but blessed with the 
moon. Before the day broke they effected their ex 
ploit, and by the rising of the sun arrived at the 
Major s garrison, where they met the General, 
and presented him with eighteen of the enemy 
which they had captured. The General, pleased 
with the exploit, gave them thanks, particularly 
to Mr. Church, the mover and chief actor of the 
business; and sending two of them, likely boys, a 

* Sacliem of Shawomet, or Warwick. 


present to Boston; smiling on Mr. Church, told 
him, " That he made no doubt but his faculty 
would supply them with Indian boys enough be 
fore the war was ended." 

Their next move was to a swamp, which the 
Indians had fortified with a fort. Mr. Church/ 
rode in the General s guard when the bloody 
engagement began; but being impatient of being 
out of the heat of the action, importunately beg 
ged leave of the General that he might run down 
to the assistance of his friends. The Genera! 
yielded to his request, provided he could ra% 
some hands to go with him. Thirty men imme 
diately drew out and followed him. They enter 
ed the swamp, and passed over the log, which was 
the passage into the fort, where they saw in any 
men and several valiant captainsf lie slain. Mr 
Church espying Capt. Gardiner, of Salem, amidst 
the wigwams in the east end of the fort, made to 
wards him; but on a sudden, while they were 
looking each other in the face, Captain Gardiner 
settled down. Mr. Church stepped to him, and 
seeing the blood run down his cheek, lifted up his 
cap and called him by his name. He looked up 
in his face, but spoke not a word, being mortally 
shot through the head; and observing his wound, 
Mr. Church found the ball entered his head on 
the side that was next the upland, where the 
English entered the swamp; upon which, having 
ordered some care to be taken of the Captain, he 

* Notwithstanding Mr, Church so distinguished himself 
in this great batt , hi.s -name is riot mentioned in our most 
authentic histories of these times. 

I Captains Johr.^on and Davenport of Massachusetts^ 
who led the van, and many more. 


despatched information to the General, that the 
best and most forward of his army, that hazarded 
iheir lives to enter the fort, upon the muzzle of 
the enemys guns, were shot in their backs, and 
killed by them that lay behind. Mr. Church, 
with his small company, hastened out of the fort 
that the English were now possessed of, to get a 
shot at the Indians that were in the swamp, -and 
"kept firing upon them. He soon met with a 
broad and bloody track, where the enemy had fled 
with their wounded men. Following hard in the 
track, he soon discovered one of the enemy, who, 
clapping his gun across his breast, made towards 
Mr. Church, and beckoned to him with his hand. 
Mr. Church immediately commanded no man to 
hurt him, hoping by him to have gained some in 
telligence of the enemy which might be of advan 
tage; but it unhappily fell out that a fellow who 
had lagged behind coming up, shot the Indian, to 
Mr. Church s great grief and disappointment. 
Immediately they heard a great shout of the 
enemy, which seemed to be behind them, or be 
tween them and the fort, and discovered them 
running from tree to tree to gain advantages of 
firing upon the English that were in the fort. Mr. 
Church s great difficulty now was how to discover 
liimself to his friends in the fort, using several in 
ventions, till at length he gained an opportunity to 
call to, and informed a Sergeant in the fort, that 
he was there, and might be exposed to their 
shots, unless they observed it. By this time he 
discovered a number of the enemy almost within 
shot of him, making towards the fort. Mr. 
Church and his company were favoured by a heap 
of brush that was between them and the enemy, 


and prevented their being discovered by them. 
Mr. Church had given his men their particular 
orders for firing upon the enemy; and as they 
were rising up to make their shot the afore-men 
tioned sergeant called out to them, for God s 
sake not to fire, for he believed they were some 
of their friendly Indians. They clapped down 
again, but were soon sensible of the sergeant s 
mistake. The enemy got to the top of the tree, 
the body whereof the sergeant stood upon, and 
there clapped down out of sight of the fort, but 
all this while never discovered Mr. Church, who 
observed them to keep gathering unto that place, 
until there seemed to be a formidable black heap 
of them. " Now, brave boys," said Mr. Church 
to his men, " if we mind our hits we may have a 
brave shot, and let our sign for firing on them be 
their rising to fire into the fort." It was not 
long before the Indians rising up as one body, de 
signing to pour a volley into the fort, when our 
Church nimbly started up and gave them such a 
round volley, and unexpected clap on their backs, 
that they, who escaped with their lives, were so 
surprised that they scampered, they knew not 
whither themselves. About a dozen of them ran 
over the log into the fort, and took into a sort of 
hovel that was built with poles, after the manner 
of a corn crib. Mr. Church s men having their 
cartridges fixed were soon ready to obey his or 
der, which was immediately to charge and run 
upon the hovel and overset it, calling, as he ran, 
to some that were in the fort, to assist him in 
oversetting it. They no sooner came to face the 
enemj s shelter, than Mr. Church discovered that 
one of them had found a hole to point his gun 


through, directly at him; but he encouraged his 
company, and ran on till he was struck with three 
bullets, one in his thigh, which was near half cut 
off as it glanced on the joint of his hip bone; an 
other through the gathering of his breeches and 
drawers, with a small flesh wound; a third pierced 
his pocket and wounded a pair of mittens that lie 
had borrowed of Capt. Prentice, being wrapped 
together had the misfortune of having many holes 
cut through them with one bullet; but, however, 
he made a shift to keep on his legs, and nimbly 
discharged his gun at them that had wounded him. 
Being disabled now to go a step, his men would 
have carried him off, but he forbid their touching 
him, until they had perfected their project of 
oversetting the enemy s shelter; bid them run, 
for now the Indians had no guns charged. While 
he was urging them to run on, the Indians began 
to shoot arrows, one of which pierced through the 
arm of an Englishman that had hold of the arm of 
Mr. Church to support him. 

The English, in short, were discouraged, and 
drew back; and by this time the English people 
in the fort had began to set fire to the wigwams 
and houses in the fort, which Mr. Church labour 
ed hard to prevent; they told him, they had orders 
from the General to burn them; he begged them 
to forbear until he had discoursed the General; 
and hastening to him, he begged to spare the wig 
wams, &c. in the fort from lire 5 told him, the 
wigwams were musket-proof, being ajl lined with 
baskets and tubs of grain, and other provisions, 
sufficient to supply the whole army, until the spring 
of the year; and every wounded man might have 
a good warm house to lodge in, who otherwuys 


would necessarily perish with the storms and cold; 
and moreover, that the army had no other provis 
ion to trust to, or depend upon; that he knew that 
the Plymouth forces had not so much as one bis- 
cuite left, for he had seen their last dealt out," 
&c. The General advising a few words with the 
gentlemen that were about him, moved towards 
the fort, designing to ride in himself, and bring in 
the whole army; but just as he was entering the 
swamp, one of his Captains met him, and asked 
him, whither he was going? He told him into the 
fort. The Captain laid hold of his horse, and told 
him, " His life was worth an hundred of theirs, 
and he should not expose himself." The Gene 
ral told him, " That he supposed the brunt was 
over, and that Mr. Church had informed him 
that the fort was taken, &LC. and as the case was 
circumstanced he was of the mind, that it was 
most practicable for him, and his army to shelter 
themselves in the fort." The Captain in a great 
heat replied, that Church lied ; and told the 
General, that if he moved another step towards 
the fort he would shoot his horse under him.. 
Then brusled up another gentleman, a certain 
docter, .and opposed Mr. Church s advice, and 
said, " If it were complied with, it would kill more 
men than the enemy had killed; for, said he, by 
to-morrow the wounded men will be so stiff that 
there will be no moving of them; and looking upon 
Mr. Church, and seeing the blood flow apace from 
his wounds, told him, that if he gave such advice 
as that was, he should bleed to death like a dog 
before he would endeavour to stanch his blood; 
though after they had prevailed against his advic\^, 
they were sufficiently kind to him. And burning 


up all the houses and provisions in the fort, the 
army returned the same night in the storm and 
cold. And I suppose that every one who was ac 
quainted with that night s march, deeply laments 
the miseries that attended them, especially the 
wounded and dying men. But it mercifully came 
to pass, that Capt. Andrew Belcher, arrived at 
Mr. Smith s that very night from Boston, with a 
vessel laden with provisions for the army, who 
must otherwise have perished for want. Some of 
the enemy that were then in the fort have since 
informed us, that near a third of the Indians be 
longing to all the Narraganset country were kill 
ed by the English, and by the cold of that night; 
that they fled out of their fort so hastily, that they 
carried nothing with them; and that if the English 
had kept in the fort, the Indians would certainly 
have been necessitated, either to surrender them 
selves to them, or to have perished by hunger, and 
the severity of the season.* Some time after this 
fort fight, a certain Sogkonate Indian, on hearing 
Mr. Church relate the manner of his being wound 
ed, told him, that he did not know but he himself 
was the Indian that wounded him, for that he was 

* The swamp fight happened on December 29, 1675, in 
which about 50 English were killed in the action, and died 
of their wounds; and about 300 or 350 Indians, men, women 
and children, were killed, and as many more captivated. It 
is said 500 wigwams were burnt with the fort; and 200 
more in other parts of Narraganset. The place of the 
fort was an elevated ground or piece of upland, of perhaps 
three or four acres, in the middle of a hideous swamp; about 
seven miles near due west from Narraganset south ferry. 

There is a mistake in the date of the swamp fight, either 
committed by Church, or a typographical mistake. It 
happened the 19th of December, 1GT5. 


of that company of Indians that Mr. Church 
made a shot upon, when they were rising to make 
a shot into the fort; that they were in number 
about sixty or seventy, that had just then came 
down from Punham s town, and never before then 
fired a gun against the English; that when Mr. 
Church fired upon them he killed fourteen dead 
upon the spot, and wounded a greater number than 
he killed, many of which died afterwards of their 
wounds, in the cold and storm the following night. 

Mr. Church was moved, with other wounded 
men, over to Rhode-Island, where, in about three 
months time, he was in some good measure re 
covered of his wounds, and the fever that attend 
ed them; and then went over to the General to 
take his leave of him, with a design to return home. 

But the General s great importunity again per 
suaded him to accompany him in a long march into 
the Nipmuck* country, though he had then tents 
in his wounds, and so lame as not able to mount 
his horse without two men s assistance. 

In this march the first thing remarkable was, 
that they came to an Indian town where there 
were many wigwams in sight, but an icy swamp, 
lying between them and the wigwams, prevent 
ed their running at once upon it as they intend 
ed. There was much firing upon each side be 
fore they passed the swamp. But at length the 
enemy all fled, and a certain Mohegaa, that was 
a friendly Indian, pursued and seized one of the 
enemy that had a small wound in his leg, and 
brought him before the General, where he was 

* Country about Worcester, Oxford, Grafton, Dudley* 
&-c. See Appendix. 


examined. Some were for torturing him to bring 
him to a more ample confession of what he knew 
eoncerning his countrymen. Mr. Church, verily 
believing he had been frank in his confession, in 
terceded and prevailed for his escaping torture. 
But the army being bound forward in their march, 
and the Indian s wound somewhat disenabling him 
for travelling, it was concluded he should be knock 
ed on the head: accordingly he was brought be^ 
fore a great fire, and the Mohegan that took him 
was allowed, as he desired, to be his executioner. 
Mr. Church taking no delight" in the sport, fram 
ed an errand at some distance among the baggage 
horses, and when he had got ten rods or there 
abouts, from the fire, the executioner fetching a 
blow with a hatchet at the head of the prisoner, 
he being aware of the blow, dodged his head aside 
and the executioner missing his stroke, the hatch 
et flew out of his hand, and had like to have 
dane execution where it was not designed. The 
prisoner, upon his narrow escape, broke from them 
that held him, and notwithstanding his wound, 
made use of his legs and happened to run directly 
upon Mr. Church, who laid hold on him, and a 
close skuffle they had, but the Indian having no 
clothes on slipped from him and ran again, and 
Mr. Church pursued him; although being lame 
there was no great odds in the race, until the In 
dian stumbled and fell, and they closed again, 
skuffled and fought pretty smartly, until the In* 
dian, by the advantage of his nakedness, slipped 
from his hold again and set out on his third race 
with Mr. Church close at his heels endeavouring 
to lay hold on the hair of his head, which was all 
the hold that could be taken of him; and running 


through a swamp that was covered with hollow 
ice, it made so loud a noise that Mr. Church ox- 
pected, but in vain, that some of his English 
friends would follow the noise and come to his as 
sistance. But the Indian happened to run athwart 
a large tree that lay fallen near breast high, where 
he stopped and cryed out aloud for help; but Mr. 
Church being soon upon him again, the Indian 
seized him fast by the hair of his head, and en 
deavoured by twisting to break his neck; but 
though Mr. Church s wounds had somewhat weak- 
ed him, and the Indian a stout fellow, yet he held 
him in play and twisted the Indian s neck as well, 
and took the advantage of many opportunities while 
they hung by each others hair, gave him notorious 
bunts in the face with his head. But in the heat 
of this skuffle they heard the ice break with some 
body s coming apace to them, which when they 
heard, Church concluded there was help for one 
or the other of them, but was doubtful which of 
them must naw receive the fatal stroke ; anon 
somebody comes up to them, who proved to bo the 
Indian that had first taken the prisoner. With 
out speaking a word, he felt them out, for it was 
so dark he could not distinguish them by sight; 
the one being clothed and the other naked, he 
felt where Mr. Church s hands were fastened in 
the Netop s hair, and with one blow settled his 
hatchet in between them, and ended the strife. 
He then spoke to Mr. Church, and hugged him 
in his arms, and thanked him abundantly for 
catching his prisoner; and cut off the head of hi? 
victim and carried it to the camp; and giving an 
account to the rest of the friendly Indians in the 


camp, how Mr. Church had seized his prisoner, 
&c. they all joined in a mighty shout. 

Proceeding in this march, they had the success 
of killing many of the enemy; until at length their 
provisions failing, they returned home. 

King Philip, as was before hinted, was fled to 
a place called Scattacook, between York and Al 
bany, where the Moohags* made a descent upon 
him and killed many of his men, which moved him 
from thence. 

His next kennelling place was at the falls of 
Connecticut river,f where, sometime after, Capt 
Turner found him, came upon him by night, killed 
a great many of his men, and frightened many 
more into the river, that were hurled down the 
falls and drowned. 

Philip got over the river, and on the back side 
of Wetuset hills meets with all the remnants of 
the INarraganset and NipmuckJ Indians, that were 
there gathered together, and became very nume 
rous, and made their descent on Sudbury and the 
adjacent parts of the country, where they met with 
and swallowed up valiant CaptWadsworth and 
his company, and many other doleful desolations in 
those parts. The news whereof coming to Ply 
mouth, and they expecting probably the enemy 
would soon return again into their colony, the 
council of war were called together, and Mr. 

* Mohawks. This name according to Roger Williams, 
is derived from the word nioho, which signifies to eat; Or, 
Mohawks signified man-eaters, or Cannibals, among the 
other trihes of Indians. 

| Above Deerfield. J About Rutland. 

Captain Wadsworth, with about fifty men, in their 
inarch to relieve Sudbury, missed their way, and were all 
ant off to a man, by faliiug into an ambuscade. HUTCH, 


Church was sent for to them, being observed by 
the whole colony to be a person extraordinarily 
qualified for, and adapted to, the affairs of war. 
It was proposed in council, that lest the enemy, 
in their return, should fall on Rehoboth, or some 
other of their out-towns, a company, consisting of 
sixty or seventy men, should be sent into those 
parts; and Mr. Church invited to take the com 
mand of them. He told them, that if the enemy 
returned into that colony again, they might rea 
sonably expect that they would come very nume 
rous, and if he should take the command of men, 
he should not lie in any town or garrison with 
them, but would lie in the woods as the enemy 
did; and that to send out such small companies 
against such multitudes of the enemy, which were 
now mustered together, would be but to deliver 
so many men into their hands to be destroyed, as 
the worthy Capt. Wads worth and his company 
were. His advice upon the whole was, that if 
they sent out any forces, to send no less than 300 
soldiers; and that the other colonies shotild be 
asked to send out their quotas also; adding, that 
if they intended to make an end of the war, by 
subduing the enemy, they must make a business 
of the war, as the enemy did; and that for his 
own part, he had wholly laid aside all his own 
private business and concerns, ever since the war 
broke out. He told them, that if they would 
send forth such forces as he should direct, he 
would go with them for six weeks march, which 
was long enough for men to be kept in the woods 
at once; and if they might be sure of liberty to 
return in such a space, men would go out cheer 
fully; and he would engage that 150 of the best 


soldiers should immediately enlist voluntarily to 
go with him, if they would please to add fifty 
more; and one hundred of the friendly Indians; 
and with such an army, he made no doubt, that 
he might do much service; but on other terms he 
did not incline to be concerned. 

Their reply was, that they were already in 
debt, and so big an army would bring such 
charges upon them, as they would never be able 
to pay ; and as for sending out Indians, they 
thought it no ways advisable, and in short none of 
his advice practicable. 

Now Mr. Church s consort, and his then only 
son, were till this time remaining at Duxbury, and 
his fearing their safety there, unless the war 
were more vigorously engaged in, resolved to move 
to lihoile-Island, though it was much opposed 
both by government and relations. But at length, 
the governor considering that he might be no less 
serviceable by being on that side of the colony, 
gave his permit, and wished he had twenty more 
as good men to send with him. 

Then preparing for his removal, he went with 
his small family to Plymouth, to take leave of 
their friends, where they met with his wife s pa 
rents, who much persuaded that she might be left 
at Mr. Clark s garrison, which they supposed 
to be a mighty safe place, or at least that she 
might be there until her soon expected lyingrin 
was over, being near her time. Mr. Church 
no ways inclining to venture her any longer in 
those parts, and no arguments prevailing with 
him, he resolutely set out for Taunton, and many 
of their friends accompanied them. There they 
found Captain Pierce, with a commanded party, 


who offered Mr. Church to send a relation of his 
with some others to guard him to Rhode-Island. 
Mr. Church thanked him for his respectful oifer, 
but for some good reasons refused to accept it, 
In short they got safe to Capt. John Almy s 
house upon Rhode-Island, where they met with 
friends and good entertainment. But, by the way, 
let me not forget this remarkable providence, viz. 
that within twenty-four hours, or thereabouts, 
after their arrival at Rhode- Island, Mr. Clark s 
garrison, that Mr. Ch-urch was so much impor 
tuned to leave his wife and children at, was de 
stroyed by the enemy. 

Mr. Church being at present disabled from any 
particular service in the war, began to think of 
pome other employ; but he no sooner took a tool 
to cut a small stick, but he cut off the top of his 
fore finger, and the next to it half off; upon which 
he smilingly said, that he thought he was out of 
his w r ay to leave the war, and resolved he would 
go to the war again. Accordingly, his second son 
being born on the twelfth of May, and his wife 
and son likely to do well, Mr. Church embraces 
the opportunity of a passage in a sloop bound to 
Barnstable, which landed him at Sogkonesset, from 
whence he rode to Plymouth; arriving there on 
the first Tuesday in June. The general court 
then sitting welcomed him, and told him they 
were glad to see him alive. He replied, he was 
as glad to see them alive, for he had seen so many 
fires and smokes towards their side of the country 
since he left them, that he could scarce eat or 
sleep with any comfort, for fear they had all been 
destroyed. For all travelling was stopped, and 
no news had passed for a long time together. He 


gave them an account, that the Indians had made 
horrid desolations at Providence, Warwick, Paw- 
tuxet, and all over the Narraganset country; and 
.that they prevailed daily against the English on that 
side of tlie country; told them he longed to hear what 
methods they designed in the war. They told him 
they were particularly glad that Providence had 
brought him there at that juncture; for they had 
concluded the very next day to send out an army 
of 200 men, two thirds English * and one third 
Indians. This was in some measure agreeahle to 
his former proposal. And they expected Boston 
and Connecticut to join with their quotas. In 
short, it was so concluded; and that Mr. Church 
should return to the island, and see what he could 
muster there of those who had moved from Swan- 
zey, Dartmouth, &,c. So he returned the same 
way he came. When he came to Sogkonesset, 
he had a sham put upon him, about a boat he had 
bought to go home in, and was forced to hire two 
of the friendly Indians to paddle him in a canoe 
from Elizabeth s to Rhode-Island. 

It fell out, that as they were in their voyage 
passing by Sogkonate-point, some of the enemy 
were upon the rocks a fishing. He bid the In 
dians that managed the canoe to paddle so near 
the rocks as that he might call to those Indians; 
told tnem that he had a great mind ever since the 
war broke out to speak with some of the Sogko- 
nate Indians, and that they were their relations, 
and therefore they need not fear their hurting of 
them. And he added, that he had a mighty con 
ceit, that if he could get a fair opportunity to dis-y 
course with them, that he could draw them off 
from t Philip ; for he knew they never heartily 


loved him. The enemy hallooed and made signs 
for the canoe to come to them; but when they 
approached them they skulked and hid in the 
clifts of the rocks. Then Mr. Church ordered 
the canoe to be paddled off again, lest if he came 
too near they should fire upon him. Then the 
Indians appearing again, beckoned and called in 
the Indian language, and bid them come ashore, 
for they wanted to speak with him. The Indians 
in the canoe answered them again; but they on 
the rocks told them, that the surf made such a 
noise against the rocks, they could not hear any 
thing they said. Then Mr. Church, by signs 
with his hands, gave to understand, that he would 
have two of them go down upon the point of the 
beach, a place where a man might see who was 
near him; accordingly, two of them ran along the 
beach, and met him there without their arms, ex 
cepting one of them that had a lance in his hand. 
They urged Mr. Church to come ashore, for they 
had a great desire to have some discourse with 
him. He told them, if he that had his weapon 
in his hand, would carry it up some distance upon 
the beach, and leave it, he would come ashore 
and discourse with them. He did so, and Mr. 
Church went ashore, hauled up his canoe, ordered 
one of his Indians to stay by it, and the other to 
walk above on the beach, as a sentinel, to see 
that the coasts were clear; and when Mr. Church 
came up to the Indians, one of them happened to 
be honest George, one of the two that Awash- 
onks formerly sent to call him to her dance, and 
was so careful to guard him back to his house 
again, and the last Sogkonate Indian that he 
spoke with before the war broke out. He spoke 


English very well. Mr. Church asked him where 
Awashonks was? He told him in a swamp, about 
three miles off. Mr. Church asked him what he 
wanted, that he hallooed and called him ashore? 
He answered, that he took him for Church as 
soon as he heard his voice in the canoe, and that 
he was very glad to see him alive; and he believ 
ed his mistress would be as glad to see him and 
speak with him. He told him further, that he 
believed she was not fond of maintaining a war 
with the English; and that she had left Philip, 
and did not intend to return to him any more. 
He was mighty earnest for Mr. Church to tarry 
there, while he would run and call her; but he 
told him no, for he did not know but the Indians 
would come down and kill him before he could 
get back again. He said, if Mount-Hope or 
Pocasset Indians could catch him, he believed 
they would knock him on the head, but all Sog- 
konate Indians knew him very well, and he be 
lieved none of them would hurt him. In short 
Mr. Church refused then to tarry, but promised 
that he would come over again, and speak with 
Awashonks, and some other Indians that he had 
a mind to talk with. 

Accordingly he appointed him to notify Awa 
shonks, her son Peter, their chief Captain, and 
one Nompash, an Indian that Mr. Church had 
formerly a particular respect for, to meet him two 
days after, at a rock at the lower end of Capt. 
Richmond s farm, which was a very rioted place; 
and if that day should prove stormy, or windy, 
they were to expect him the next moderate day. 
Mr. Church told George, that he would have 
him come with the persons mentioned, and no 


more. They giving each other their hand upon 
it, parted, and Mr. Church went home; and the 
next morning to Newport, and informed the gov 
ernment of what had passed between him and the 
Sogkonate Indians, and desired their permit for 
him, arid Daniel Wilcox, a man who well under 
stood the Indian language, to go over to them. 
They told him that they thought he was mad, af 
ter such service as he had done, and such dangers 
as he had escaped, now to throw away his life; 
for the rogues would as certainly kill him as he 
went over; and utterly refused to grant his permit, 
or to be willing that he should run the risk. 

Mr. Church told them, " That it had ever been 
in his thoughts since the war broke out, that if he 
could discourse with the Sogkonate Indians, he 
could draw them off from Philip and employ them 
against him; but could not, till now, ever have an 
opportunity to speak with any of them, and was 
very loath to loose it," &c. At length they told 
him if he would go it should be only with the two 
Indians that came with him; but they would give 
him no permit under their hands. He took his 
leave of them, resolving to prosecute his design. 
They told him they were sorry to see him so res 
olute; for if he went they never expected to sere 
his face again. 

He bought a bottle of rum and a small roll of 
tobacco, to carry with him, and returned to his 
family. The next day, being the day appointed 
for the meeting, he prepared two light canoes for 
the design, and his own man, with the two In 
dians for his company. He used such arguments 
with his tender and now almost broken hearted 
wife, from the experience of former preservations 


and the prospect of the great service he might do 
should it please God to succeed his design, &c. 
that he obtained her consent to his attempt. And 
committing her, the babes and himself to Heaven s 
protection, he set out. They had from the shore 
about a league to paddle. Drawing near the 
place they saw the Indians setting on the bank 
waiting for their coming. Mr. Church sent one 
of his Indians ashore in one of the canoes, to see 
whether they were the same Indians whom he had 
appointed to meet him, and no more; and if so to 
stay ashore and send George to fetch him; ac 
cordingly George came and fetched Mr. Church 
ashore, while the other canoe played off to see 
the event, and to carry tidings if the Indians 
should prove false. 

Mr. Church asked George whether Awashonks 
and the other Indians he appointed to meet him, 
were there? He answered, They were. He then 
asked him if there were no more than those 
whom he appointed to be there? To which he 
would give him no direct answer. However, he 
went ashore, where he was no sooner landed but 
Awashonks, and the rest that he had appointed to 
meet them there, rose up and came down to meet 
him; and each of them successively gave him 
their hands, and expressed themselves glad to see 
him, and gave him thanks for exposing himself to 
visit them. They walked together about a gun 
shot from the water, to a convenient place to sit 
down, when at once rose up a great body of In 
dians, who had lain hid in the grass, which was as 
high as a man s waist, and gathered round them, 
till they had enclosed them in. Being f iH armed 
with guns, spears, hatchets, &,c. witU their hair 


brimmed and faces painted in their warlike appear^ 
ance. It was doubtless somewhat surprising to 
our gentleman at first, but without any visible dis 
covery of it. After a small silent pause on each 
side, he spoke to Awashonks, and told her that 
George had informed him that she had a desire to 
see him, and discourse about making peace with 
the English. She answered, Yes. Then, said Mr. 
Church, it is customary when people meet to treat 
of peace to lay aside their arms, and not appear 
in such a hostile form as your people do; and de 
sired her that if they might talk about peace, 
which he desired they might, her men might lay 
aside their arms and appear more tre-atable. Up 
on which there began a considerable noise and 
murmur among them, in their own language, till 
Awashonks asked him what arms they should lay 
down, and where? He, perceiving the Indians 
looked very surly and much displeased, replied, 
"Only their guns, at some small distance, for for 
mality s sake. 3 Upon which, with one consent, 
they laid aside their guns, and came and sat down. 
Mr. Church pulled out his calabash, and asked 
Awashonks, whether she had lived so long at We- 
tuset as to forget to drink Occapeches; and then 
drinking to her, he perceived that she watched 
him very diligently, to see, as he thought, whether 
he swallowed any of the rum. He offered her 
the shell; but she desired him to drink again first. 
He then told her there was no poison in it; and 
pouring some into the palm of his hand, sipped it 
up, and took the shell and drank to her again, 
and took a good draught, which indeed was no 
more than he needed. Then, they all standing 
up, he said to Awashouks, " You won t drink for 


fear there should be poison in it." He then 
handed it to a little ill-looking fellow, who catch- 
ed it readily enough, and as greedily would have 
swallowed the liquor when he had it at his mouth; 
but Mr. Church catched him by the throat and 
took it from him, asking him whether he intended 
to swallow shell and all? He then handed it to 
Awashonks, who ventured to take a good hearty 
dram, and passed it among her attendants. 

The shell being emptied he pulled out his to 
bacco, and having distributed it, they began to 

Awashonks demanded of him the reason why 
he had not, agreeably to his promise when she 
saw him last, been down to Sogkonate before now, 
saying, that probably if he had come then, accord 
ing to his promise, they had never joined with 
Philip against the English. 

He told her he was prevented by the wars 
breaking out so suddenly; and yet he was after 
wards coming down, and came as far as Punka- 
teese, where a great many Indians set upon him, 
and fought him a whole afternoon, though he did 
not come prepared to fight. He had but nine 
teen men with him, whose chief design was to gain 
an opportunity to discourse some Sogkonate In 
dians. Upon this there arose a mighty murmur, 
confused noise and talk among the fierce looking 
creatures; and all rising up in a hubbub, a great 
surly looking fellow took up his tomhog, orwood- 
en cutlass, to kill Mr. Church; but some others 
preveated him. 

The interpreter asked Mr. Church if he un 
derstood what it was that the great fellow, which 
they had hold of, said? He answered him, No. 


Why, said the interpreter, he says you killed his 
brother at Punkateese, and therefore he thirsts 
for your blood. Mr. Church hid the interpreter 
tell him that his brother began first; that if he 
had kept at Sogkonate, according to his desire 
and order, he should not have hurt him. 

Then the chief Captain commanded silence, 
and told them, that they should talk no more 
about old things, &,c. and quelled the tumult, .so 
that they sat down again, and began a discourse of 
making peace with the English. Mr. Church asked 
them what proposals they would make, and on what 
terms they would break their league with Philip? 
Desired them to make some proposal that he 
might carry to his masters, telling them that it 
was not in his power to conclude a peace with 
them, but that he knew that if their proposals 
were reasonable, the government would not he 
unreasonable; and that he would use his interest 
with the government for them. And to encour 
age them to proceed, lie put them in mind that 
the Pequots once made war with the English, 
and that after they subjected themselves to the 
English, the English became their protectors, 
and defended them against other nations that 
would otherwise have destroyed them, &c. Af 
ter some further discourse and debate, he brought 
them at length to consent, that if the government 
of Plymouth would firmly engage to them, that 
they and all of them, and their wives and children 
should have their lives spared, and none of them 
transported out of the country, they would sub 
ject themselves to them, and serve them in what 
they were able. 

Then Mr. Church told them, that he was well 


satisfied the government of Plymouth would readi 
ly concur with what they proposed, and would 
sign their articles; and complimenting them upon 
it, how pleased he was with the thoughts of their 
return, and of the former friendship that had exist- 
between (hem, &,c. 

The chief Captain rose up, and expressed the 
great value and respect he had for Mr. Church; 
and bowing to him, said, 4t Sir, if you will please 
to accept of me and my men, and will head us, 
we will fight for you, and will help you to Philip s 
head before the Indian corn be ripe." And when 
he had ended, they all expressed their consent to 
what he said, and told Mr. Church they loved 
him, and were willing to go with him, and fight 
for him, as long as the Knglish had one enemy 
left in the country. 

Mr. Church assured them, that if they proved 
as good as their word, they should find him their 
and their children s fast friend. And, by the 
way, the friendship is maintained between them 
to this day. 

Then he proposed to them, that they should 
choose five men to go straight with him to Ply 
mouth. They told him no; they world not choose, 
but he should take which five he pleaded. Some 
compliments passed about it, at length it was 
agreed, that they should choose three, and he two. 
Then he agreed, that he would go back to the 
island that night, and would come to them the 
next morning, and go through the woods to Ply 
mouth. But they afterwards objected, for his 
travelling through the woods would not- be safe 
for him; said the enemy might meet with him, 
rmd kiH.. him, and then they should lose their 


friend, and the whole design ruined beside. And 
therefore proposed, that he should come in an 
English vessel, and they would meet him, and 
come on board at Sogkonate-point, and sail from 
thence to Sandwich, which, in fine, was concluded 

So Mr. Church promised to come as soon as 
he could possibly obtain a vessel, and then they 
parted. He returned to the island, and was at 
great pains and charge to get a vessel; but with 
unaccountable disappointments, sometimes by the 
falseness, and sometimes by the faint-heartedness 
of men that he bargained with, arid something by 
wind and weather, &c.; until at length, Mr. An 
thony Low put into the harbour with a loaded 
vessel bound to the westward, and being made 
acquainted with Mr. Church s case, told him, 
that he had so much kindness for him, and was so 
pleased with the business he was engaged in, that 
he would run the venture of his vessel and cargo, 
to wait upon him. Accordingly, next morning 
they set sail with a wind that soon brought them 
to Sogkonate-point; but coming there they met 
with a contrary wind, and a great swelling sea. 

The Indians were there waiting upon the rocks, 
but had nothing but a miserable broken canoe to 
get aboard in; yet Peter Aw r ashonks ventured off 
in it, and with a great deal of difficulty and dan 
ger got aboard. And by this time it began to 
rain and blow exceedingly, and forced them up 
the Sound; and then went away through Bristol 
ferry, round the island to Newport, carrying 
Peter with them. 

Then Mr. Church dismissed Mr. Low, and 
told him. that inasmuch as Providence opposed 


his going by water, and he expected that the. 
army would be up in a few days, and probably if 
he should be gone at that juncture, it might ruin 
the whole design; he would therefore yield his 


Then he wrote the account of his trasactions 
with the Indians, and drew up the proposals, and 
articles of peace, and despatched Peter with 
them to Plymouth, that his Honor, the Governor, 
if he saw cause, might sign them. 

Peter was sent over to Sogkonatc on the Lord s 
day morning, with orders to take those men that 
were chosen to go down, or some of them at least 
with him. The time being expired that was ap 
pointed for the English army to come, there was 
freat looking for them. Mr. Church on the 
londay morning, partly to divert himself after 
his fatigue, and partly to listen for the army, rode 
out with his wife, and some of his friends to Ports 
mouth, under a pretence of cherrying; but came 
home without any news from the army. But by 
midnight, or sooner, he was roused with an ex 
press from Major Bradford, who was arrived with 
the army at Pocasset; to whom he forthwith re 
paired, and informed him of the whole of his pro 
ceedings with the Sogkonate Indians. With the 
Major s consent and advice, he returned again 
next morning to the island, in order to go over 
th ;t way to Awashonks, to inform her that the 
army was arrived, &c. Accordingly from Sa- 
chueeset-neck,* he went in a canoe to Sogkonate; 
told her that Major Bradford was arrived at Po 
casset, with a great army, whom he had informed 

* The south-east corner of Rhode-Island 


of all his proceedings with her; that if she would 
be advised and observe order, she nor her people 
need not fear being hurt by them; told her, she 
should call all her people down into the neck, lest 
if they should be found straggling about, mischief 
might light on them; that on the morrow they 
would come down and receive her, and give her 
further orders. She promised to get as many of 
her people together as possibly she could; desir 
ing Mr. Church to consider that it would be diffi 
cult for to get them together at such short warn 
ing. Mr. Church returned to the island, and to 
the ariny the same night. The next morning the 
whole army marched towards Sogkonate, as far 
as Punkatees; and Mr. Church with a few men 
went down to Sogkonate to call Awashonks, and 
her people to come up to the English camp. As 
he was going down, they met with a Pocasset In 
dian, who had killed a cow, and got a quarter of 
her on his back, and her tongue in his pocket. 
He gave them an account, that he came from 
Pocasset two days since in company with his 
mother, and several other Indians, now hid in the 
swamp above Nomquid.* Disarming him, he 
sent him with two men to Major Bradford, and 
proceeded to Sogkonate. They saw several In 
dians by the way skulking about, but let them 
pass. Arriving at Awashonks camp, he told her 
he was come to invite her and her people up to 
Punkateese,f where Major Bradford now was 
with the Plymouth army, expecting her and her 
subjects to receive orders, until further order 
could be had from the government. She complied, 

* In Tiverton. | Adjoining Fogland Ferry, 



and soon sent out orders for such of her subjects 
as were not with her, immediately to come in; 
and by twelve o clock the next day, she, with 
most of her number, appeared before the English 
camp at Punkateese. Mr. Church tendered the 
Major to serve under his commission, provided 
the Indians might be accepted with him, to fight 
the enemy. The Major told him, his orders 
were to improve him, if he pleased, but as for the 
Indians he would not be concerned with them. 
And presently gave forth orders for Awashonks, 
and all her subjects, both men, women and chil 
dren, to repair to Sandwich, and to be there upon 
peril, in six days. Awashonks and her chiefs 
gathered round Mr. Church, where he was walk 
ed off from the rest, expressed themselves con 
cerned, that they could not be confided in, nor 
improved. He told them, it was best to obey 
Borders, and that if he could not accompany them 
to Sandwich, it should not be above a week be 
fore he would meet them there; that he was con 
fident the governor would commission him to im 
prove them. The Major hastened to send them 
away with Jack" Havens, an Indian who had 
never been in the wars, in the front, with a flag of 
truce in his hand. They being gone, Mr. Church, 
by the help of his man Toby, the Indian whom 
he had taken prisoner, as he was going down to 
Sogkonate, took said Toby s mother, and those 
that were with her, prisoners. Next morning 
the whole army moved back to Pocasset. This 
Toby informed them, that there were a great 
many Indians gone down to Wepoiset to eat 
clams, other provisions being very scarce with 
them; that Philip himself was expected within 


three or four days at tlie same place. Being 
asked what Indians they were? he answered, 
some Weetemore Indians, some Mount-Hope 
Indians, some Narranganset Indians, and some 
other Upland Indians, in all about 300. 

The Rhode-Island boats, by the Major s order, 
meeting them at Pocasset, they were soon em 
barked. It being just in the dusk of the evening, 
they could plainly discover the enemy s fires at 
the place the Indian directed ta; and the army 
concluded no other but they were bound directly 
thither, until they came to the north end of the 
island, and heard the word of command for the 
boats to bare away. Mr. Church was very fond 
of having this probable opportunity of surprising 
that whole company of Indians embraced; but 
orders, it was said, must be obeyed, which was to 
go to Mount-Hope, and there to fight Philip. 
This, with some other good opportunities of doing 
spoil upon the enemy, being unhappily missed, 
Mr. Church obtained the Major s consent to 
meet the Sogkonate Indians, according to his 
promise. He was offered a guard to Plymouth, 
but chose to go with one man only, who was a 
good pilot. About sun-set, he, with Sabin his 
pilot, mounted their horses at Rehoboth, where 
the army now was, and by two hours sun next 
morning arrived safe at Plymouth; and by the 
time they had refreshed themselves, the governor 
and treasurer came to town. Mr. Church giving 
them a short account of the affairs of the army, 
&c. his Honor was pleased to give tym thanks 
for the good and great service he had done at 
Sogkonate, told him he had confirmed all that he 
had promised Awashonks, and had sent the In- 


dians back again that brought his letter. He 
asked his Honor whether he had any thing later 
from Awashonks? He told him he had not. 
Whereupon he gave his Honor an account of the 
Major s orders relating to her and hers, and what 
discourse had passed pro and con, about them; 
and that he had promised to meet them, and that 
he had encouraged them that he thought he 
might obtain of his Honor a commission to lead 
them forth to fight Philip. His Honor smilingly 
told him, that he should not want commission if 
he would accept it; nor yet good Englishmen 
enough to make up a good army. But in short 
he told his Honor the time had expired that he 
was appointed to meet the Sogkonates at Sand 
wich. The governor asked him, when he would 
go? He told him that afternoon, by his Honor s 
leave. The governor asked him how many men 
he would have with him? He answered, not 
above half a dozen, with an order to take more at 
Sandwich, if he saw cause, and horses provided. 
He no sooner moved it, but had his number of 
men tendering to go with him, among whom were 
Mr. Jabez Howland and Nathaniel Southworth.* 
They went to Sandwich that night, where Mr. 
Church, with need enough, took a nap of sleep. 
The next morning, with about sixteen or eighteen 
men, he proceeded as far as Agawom, where they 
had great expectation of meeting the Indians, but 
met them not. His men being discouraged, about 
half of them returned; only half a dozen stuck by 
him, and promised so to do until they should 

* Both these gortlemen contributed not a little to the 
greet . pfoi aances of those days, and are mentioned by 
( . ( ;vs -\ ith the greatest respect. 


meet with the Indians. When they came to 
Sippican river,f Mr. Howland began to tire, 
upon which Mr. Church left him and two more, 
for a reserve at the river, that if he should meet 
with enemies and be forced back, they might be 
ready to assist them in getting over the river. 
Proceeding in their march, they crossed another 
river, and opened a great bay, where they might 
see many miles along shore, where were sands 
and flats; and hearing a great noise below them 
towards the sea, they dismounted their horses, 
left them and creeped among the bushes, until 
they came near the bank, and saw a vast company 
of Indians, of all ages and sexes, some on horse 
back running races, some at foot-ball, some catch 
ing eels and flat fish, some clamming, &,c. But 
which way with safety to find out what Indians 
they were, they were at a loss. But at length, 
retiring into a thicket, Mr. Church hallooed to 
them; they soon answered him, arid a couple of 
smart young fellows, well mounted, came upon a 
full career to see who it might be that called, 
and came just upon Mr. Church before they dis 
covered him; but when they perceived themselves 
so near Englishmen, and armed, were much sur 
prised, and tacked short about to run as fast back 
as they came forward, until one of the men in the 
bushes called to them, and told them his name 
was Church, and need not fear his hurting of 
them. Upon which, after a small pause, they 
turned about their horses, and came up to him. 
One of them that could speak English, Mr. 
Church took aside and examined, who informed 
him, that the Indians below were Awashonks and 

t Rochester, * 


her company, and that Jack Havens was among 
them; whom Mr. Church immediately sent for, to 
come to him, and ordered the messenger to inform 
Awashonks, that he was come to meet her. 
Jack Havens soon came, and by the time Mr. 
Church had asked him a few questions, and had 
been satisfied by him, that it was Awashonks and 
her company that were below, and that Jack had 
been kindly treated by them, a company of In 
dians, all mounted on horse back and well armed, 
came riding up to Mr. Church, but treated him 
with all due respects. He then ordered Jack to 
go and tell Awashonks, that he designed to sup 
with her in the evening, and to lodge in her camp 
that night. Then taking some of the Indians 
with him, he went back to the river to take care 
of Mr. Howland. Mr. Church having a mind to 
try what metal he was made of, imparted his no 
tion to the Indians that were with him, and gave 
them directions how to act their parts. When he 
came pretty near the place, he and his English 
men pretendediy fled, firing on their retreat towards 
the Indians that pursued them, and they firing as 
fast after them. Mr. Howland being upon his 
guard, hearing the guns, and by the by seeing the 
motion both of the English and Indians, concluded 
his friends were distressed, was soon on the full 
career on horseback to meet them, and until per 
ceiving their laughing, did not mistrust the joke. 
As soon as Mr. Church had given him the news, 
they hastened away to Awashonks. Upon their 
arrival, they were immediately conducted to a 
shelter, open on one side, whither Awashonks 
and her chiefs soon came and paid their respects; 
and the multitudes gave shouts, that made the 
woods ring. 


It being now about sun-setting, or near the 
dusk of the evening, the Nctops came running 
from all quarters, loaded with the tops of dry 
pines, and the like combustible matter, making a 
huge pile thereof, near Mr. Church s shelter, on 
the open side. And by this time supper was 
brought in, in three dishes, viz. a carious young 
bass in one dish, eels and flat fish in a second, 
and shell fish in a third; but neither bread nor 
salt to be seen at table. When supper was over, 
the mighty pile of pine knots and tops, &,c. was 
fired, and all the Indians, great and small, gath 
ered in a ring around it. Awashonks, with the 
oldest of her people, men and women mixed, 
kneeling down, made the first ring next the fire, 
and all the lusty stout men standing up made the 
next, and then all the rabble in a confused crew 
surrounded on the outside. Then the chief 
Captain stepped in between the rings and the fire, 
with a spear in one hand, and a hatchet in the 
other, danced round the fire, and began to fight 
with it; making mention of all the several nations 
and companies of Indians in the country that 
were enemies to the English; and at the naming 
of every particular tribe of Indians, he would 
draw out and fight a new fire-brand, and at finish 
ing his fight with each particular fire-brand, would 
bow to him and thank him. And when he had 
named all the several nations and tribes, and 
fought them all, he stuck down his spear and 
hatchet, and came out; and another stepped in and 
acted over the same dance, with more fury, if 
possible, than the first. And when about half a 
dozen of their chiefs had thus acted their parts, 
the Capt. of the guard stepped up to Mr. Church 


and told him, they were making soldiers for him, 
and what they had been doing was all one as 
swearing them, and having in that manner en 
gaged all the stout lusty men. Awashonks and 
her chiefs came to Mr. Church, and told him that 
now they were all engaged to fight for the En 
glish, and he might call forth. all, or any of them, 
at any time as he saw occasion, to fight the enemy, 
and presented him with a very fine firelock. Mr. 
Church accepts their offer, drew out a number of 
them, and set out next morning before day for 
Plymouth, where they arrived the same day. 

The governor being informed of it, came early 
to town next morning, and by that time he had 
Englishmen enough to make up a good company, 
when joined with Mr. Church s Indians, that 
offered their voluntary service, to go under his 
command in quest of the enemy. The governor 
then gave him a commission, which is as follows: 

Capt. BENJAMIN CHURCH, you are hereby 
nominated, ordered, commissioned, and em 
powered to raise a company of volunteers of about 
200 men, English and Indians; the English not 
exceeding the number of sixty; of which company 
or so many of them as you can obtain, or shall 
see cause at present to improve, you are to take 
the command and conduct, and to lead them forth 
novv and hereafter^ at such time, and unto such 
pi ices within this colony, or elsewhere, within the 
confederate colonies, as you shall think fit; to 
discover, pursue, fight, surprise, destroy, or sub- 
jdue our Indian enemies, or any part or parties of 
them that by the providence of God you may 
meet with; or them, or any of them, by treaty 


and composition to receive to mercy, if you see 
reason, provided they be not murderous rogues, 
or such as have been principal actors in those 
villanies. And forasmuch as your company may 
be uncertain, and the persons often changed, you 
are also hereby empowered; with the advice of 
your company, to choose arid commission a Lieu 
tenant, and to establish Serjeants and Corporals 
as you see cause. And you herein improving 
your best judgment and discretion, and utmost 
ability, faithfully to serve the interest of God, his 
Majesty s interest, and the interest of the colony; 
and carefully governing your said company at 
home and abroad. These shall be unto you full 
and ample commission, warrant and discharge. 
Given under the public seal, this 24th day of 
July, 1676. 

Per JOS. WINSLOW, Governor. 

Receiving his commission, he marched the 
same night into the woods, got to Middleborough 
before day, and as soon as the light appeared, 
took into the woods and swampy thickets, towards 
a place where they had some reason to expect to 
meet with a parcel of Narraganset Indians, with 
some others that belonged to Mount- Hope. 
Coming near where they expected them, Capt. 
Church s Indian scout discovered the enemy, and 
well observing their fires and postures, returned 
with the intelligence to their Captain; who gave 
such directions for the surrounding of them, as 
had the desired effect; surprising them on every 
side so unexpectedly, that they were all taken; 
not so much as one escaped. And upon a strict ex 
amination, they gave intelligence of another parcel 


of the enemy, at a place called Munponset-pond. 
Capt. Church hastening with his prisoners through 
the woods to Plymouth, disposed of them all, ex 
cepting one Jeffrey, who proving very ingenuous 
and faithful to him, by informing him where other 
parcels of Indians harboured. Capt. Church 
promised him, that if he continued to be faithful 
to him, he should not be sold out of the country, 
but should be his waiting man, to take care of 
his horse, &c. and accordingly he served him 
faithfully as long as he lived. 

But Capt. Church was forthwith sent out 
again, and the terms for his encouragement being 
concluded on, viz. that the country should find 
them ammunition and provision, and half the 
prisoners and arms they took. The Captain and 
his English soldiers to have the other half of the 
prisoners and arms, and the Indian soldiers the 
loose plunder. Poor encouragement ! But after 
some time it w r as mended. 

They soon captivated the Munponsets, and 
brought them in, not one escaping. This stroke 
he held several weeks, never returning empty 
handed. When he wanted intelligence of their 
kennelling places, he would march to some place 
likely to meet some travellers or ramblers, and 
scattering his company would lie close; and sel 
dom lay above a day or two, at the most, before 
some of them would fall into their hands, whom 
he would compel to inform where their company 
was; and so by this method of secret and sudden 
surprises took great numbers of them. 

The government observing his extraordinary 
courage and conduct, and the success from heaven 
added to it, saw cause to enlarge his commission: 


gave him power to raise and dismiss his forces, 
as he should see occasion; to commission officers 
under him, and to march as far as he should see 
cause, within the limits of the three united colo 
nies;* to receive to mercy, give quarter, or not; 
excepting some particular and noted murderers; 
viz. Philip and all that were at the destroying of 
Mr. Clark s garrison, and some few others. 

Major Bradford being now at Taunton with 
his army, and wanting provisions, some carts 
were ordered from Plymouth for their supply, and 
Capt. Church to guard them; but he obtaining 
oilier guards for the carts, as far as Middlebor- 
ough, ran before with a small company, hoping to 
meet with some of the enemy; appointing the 
carts and their guards to meet with them at Ne- 
mascut,t about an hour after sun s rising next 
morning. He arrived there about the breaking 
of the day-light, and discovered a company of the 
enemy; but his time was too short to wait for 
gaining advantage, arid therefore ran right in up 
on them, surprised and captivated about sixteen of 
them, who, upon examination, informed him that 
Tispaquin, a very famous Captain among the 
enemy, was at Assawompset,| with a numerous 

But the carts must now be guarded, and the 
opportunity of visiting Tispaquin must now be laid 
aside. The carts are to be faithfully guarded, 
lest Tispaquin should attack them. 

* Massachusetts. Rhode-Island & Connecticut. HUTCH. 

| Near Raynham. The north and west part of Middle- 
borough was so called. 

J I.i Middieborough. The country for considerable ex 
tent arouud Assawompset porids > bore this name. 


Coming towards Taimton, Capt. Church taking 
two men with him, made all speed to the town; 
and coming to the river side, he hallooed, and in 
quiring of them that came to the river, for Major 
Bradford or his Captains, he was informed they 
were in the town, at the tavern. He told them 
of the carts that were coming, that he had the 
cumber of guarding them, which had already pre 
vented his improving opportunities of doing ser 
vice. Prayed therefore that a guard might He 
sent over to receive the carts, that he might be at 
liberty; refusing all invitations arid persuasions to 
go over to the tavern to visit the Major. He at 
length obtained a guard to receive the carts; by 
whom also he sent his prisoners, to be conveyed 
with the carts to Plymouth, directing them not to 
return by the way they came, but by Bridgwater. 

Hastening back, he proposed to encamp that 
night at Assawompset-neck. But as soon as they 
came to the river that runs into the great pond 
through the thick swamp, at the entering of the 
neck, the enemy fired upon them, but hurt not a 
man. Capt. Church s Indians ran right into the 
swamp, and fired upon them, but it being in the 
dusk of the evening, the enemy made their es 
cape in the thickets. The Capt. then moving 
about a mile into the neck, took the advantage of 
a small valley to feed his horses ; some held 
the horses by the bridles, the rest on the guard 
looked out sharp for the enemy, within hearing on 
every side, and some very near; but in the dead of 
the night, the enemy being out of hearing, or stiil^, 
Capt. Church moved out of the neck, (not the 
same way he came in, lest he should be ambus- 


caded) towards Cushnel.* Here all the houses 
were burnt. And crossing Cushnet river, being 
extremely fatigued with two nights and one day s 
ramble without rest or sleep; and observing good 
forage for their horses, the Captain concluded 
upon baiting, and taking a nap. Setting six men 
to watch the passage of the river, two to watch 
at a time, w r hile the others slept, and so to take 
their turns, while the rest of the company went 
into a thicket, to sleep under the guard of two 
sentinels more. But the whole company being 
very drowsy, soon forgot their danger, and were 
fast asleep, sentinels and all. The Captain first 
awakes, looks up, and judges he had slept four 
hours, which being longer than he designed, im 
mediately rouses his company, and sends away a 
file to see what was become of the watch at the 
passage of the river, but they no sooner opened 
the river in sight, but they discovered a company 
of the enemy viewing their tracks, where they 
came into the neck. Captain Church, and those 
with him, soon dispersed into the brush on each 
side of the way, while the file that were sent got 
undiscovered to the passage of the river, and 
found their watch all fast asleep. But these 
tidings thoroughly awakened the whole company. 
But the enemy giving them no present disturb 
ance, they examined their knapsacks, and taking 
a little refreshment, the Captain orders one party 
to guard the horses, and the other to scout, who 
soon met with a track, and following it, they 
were brought to a small company of Indians, who 
proved to be Little Eyes, and family, and near 

* In Dartmouth. 


relations, who were of Sogkonate, but had for 
saken their countrymen, upon their making peace 
with the English. Some of Capt. Church s In 
dians asked him, if he did not know this fellow? 
Told him, this is the rogue that would have killed 
you at Awashonks dance. And signified to hitn 
that now he had an opportunity to be revenged on 
him. But the Captain told them, it was not 
Englishmen s fashion to seek revenge; and that 
he should have the same quarter the rest had. 
Moving to the river side, they found an old canoe, 
with which the Captain ordered Little Eyes and 
his company to be carried over to an island. 
Telling him he would leave him on that island 
until he returned; and lest the English should 
light on them, and kill them, he would leave 1m 
cousin Lightfoot, whom the English knew to be 
their friend, to be his guard. Little Eyes ex 
pressed himself very thankful to the Captain. 
He leaving his orders with Lightfoot, returns to 
the river side, towards Poneganset, to Russell s 
orchard.* On coming near the orchard, they 
clapped into a thicket, and there lodged the rest 
of the night without any fire. And upon the 
morning light appearing, moving towards the or 
chard, discovered some of the enemy, who had 
been there the day before, and had beat down all 
the apples, and carried them away ; discovered 
also where they had lodged that night, and saw 
the ground where they set their baskets bloody, 
being as they supposed, and as it was afterwards 
discovered to be, with the flesh of swine, &,c. 

* The remains of this orchard, was to be seen within 
the age of some now living. It stood adjoining the old 


which they had killed that day. They had lain 
under the fences without any fires, arid seemed, 
by the marks they left behind them, to be very 
numerous ; perceived also, by the dew on the 
grass, that they had not been long gone; and 
therefore moved apace in pursuit of them. Trav 
elling three miles or more, they came into the 
country road where the track parted, one parcel 
steering toward the west end of the great cedar 
swamp, and the other to the east end. The Cap 
tain halted, and told his Indian soldiers that they 
had heard, as well as he, what some men had said 
at Plymouth, about them, &c.; that now was a 
good opportunity for each party to prove them 
selves. The track having divided, they should 
follow one and the English the other, being equal 
in number. The Indians declined the motion, 
and were not willing to move any where without 
him, saying they should not be safe without him. 
But the Captain insisting upon it, they submitted. 
He gave the Indians their choice to follow which 
track they pleased. They replied, they were 
light and able to travel, therefore, if he pleased, 
they would take the west track. And appointing 
the ruins of John Cook s house at Cushnet for 
the place to meet, each party set out briskly to 
try their fortunes. Capt. Church, with his Eng 
lish soldiers, followed their track till they came 
near entering a miry swamp, when the Captain 
heard a whistle in the rear, which was a note for 
a halt. Looking behind him, he saw William 
Fobes start out of the company and make toward 
him. The Captain hastened to meet him. Fobes 
told him they had discovered abundance of In 
dians, and if he pleased to go a few steps back he 


might see them himself. He did so, and saw 
them across the swamp. Observing them, he per 
ceived they were gathering whortle-berries, and 
that they had no apprehension of their being so 
near them. The Captain supposed them to be 
chiefly women, and therefore calling one Mr. 
Dillano, who was acquainted with the ground, 
and the Indian language, and another named Mr. 
Barns, with these two men he takes right through 
the swamp as fast as he could, and orders the rest 
to hasten after them. Capt. Church, with Dilla 
no and Barns, having good horses, spurred on, 
and were soon among the thickest of the Indians, 
and out of sight of their own men. Among the 
enemy was an Indian woman, who with her hus 
band had been driven off from Rhode-Island, not 
withstanding they had a house on Mr. Sanford s 
land, and had planted an orchard before the war; 
yet, the inhabitants would not be satisfied till they 
were sent off. And Capt. Church with his fami 
ly living then at the said Sanford s, came acquaint 
ed with them, who thought it very hard to turn 
off such old quiet people. But in the end it 
proved a providence and an advantage to him and 
his family, as you may see afterwards. This In 
dian woman knew Captain Church, and as soon 
as she knew him, held up both her hands, and 
came running towards him, crying aloud, Church, 
Church, Church. Capt. Church bid her stop the 
rest of the Indians, and tell them, the way to save 
their lives was not to run, but yield themselves 
prisoners, and he would not kill them; so with her 
help and Dillano s, who could call to them in 
their own language, many of them stopped and 
surrendered themselves, others scampering and 


casting away their baskets, &,c. betook them 
selves to the thickets, but Capt. Church being on 
horse-back soon came up with them, and laid hold 
of a gun of one of the foremost of the com 
pany, pulled it from him, and told him he must 
go back. And when he had turned them, he be 
gan to look about him to see whe*e he was, and 
what was become of his company, hoping they 
might be all as well employed as himself, but could 
find none but Dillano, who was very busy in gath 
ering up prisoners. The Captain drove his that 
he had stopped to the rest, inquiring of Dillano 
for their company, but could have no news of them; 
but moving back picked up now and then a skulk 
ing prisoner by the way. When they came near 
the place where they first started the Indians, they 
discovered their company standing in a body to 
gether, and had taken some few prisoners; when 
they saw their Captain they hastened to meet him. 
They told him they found it difficult getting 
through the swamp, and neither seeing nor hear 
ing any thing of him, they concluded the enemy 
had killed him, and were at a great loss what to do. 
Having brought their prisoners together they 
found they had taken and killed sixty-six of the 
enemy. Capt. Church then asked the old squaw 
what company they belonged to? She said they 
belonged partly to Philip and partly to Qunnap- 
pin and the Narraganset Sachem. He discov 
ered also, upon her declaration, that both Philip 
and Q,unnapptO were about two miles off, in the 
great Cedar swamp. He inquired of her what 
company they had with them? She answered, 
Abundance of Indians. The swamp, she said, 
was full of Indians from one end unto the other. 


that were settled there; that there were near an 
hundred men come from the swamp with them, 
and left them upon that plain to gather whortle 
berries, and promised to call them as they came 
back out of Sconticut-neck, whither they went to 
kill cattle and horses for provision for the compa 
ny. She perceiving Capt. Church move towards 
the neck, told him if they went that way they 
would all be killed. He asked her where they 
crossed the river? She painted to the upper pass 
ing place. Accordingly Capt. Church passed so 
low down that he thought it not probable they 
should meet with his track in their return, and 
hastened towards the island where he left Little 
Eyes with Lightfoot. Finding a convenient place 
by the river side for securing his prisoners, Capt. 
Church and Mr. Dillano went down to see what 
was become of Capt. Lightfoot, and the prisoners 
left in his charge. Lightfoot, seeing and know 
ing them, soon came over with his broken canoe, 
and informed them that he had seen that day about 
an hundred of the enemy go down into Sconticut- 
neck, and that they were now returning again. 
Upon which they three ran down immediately to 
a meadow where Lightfoot said the Indians had 
passed, where they not only saw their tracks but 
them also. Whereupon they lay close until the 
enemy came into the said meadow, and the fore 
most set down his load and halted, until all the 
company came up; they then took up their loads 
and inarched again the same way that they came 
down into the neck, which was the nearest way 
to their camp. Had they gone the other wuy 
along the river, they could not have missed Capt. 
Church s track, which would doubtl-ss have ex- 


posed them to the loss of their prisoners, if not of 
their lives. But as soon as the coast was clear 
of them, the Captain sends his Lightfoot to fetch 
his prisoners from the island, while he and Mr. 
Dillano returns to the company, and sends part of 
them to conduct Lightfoot and his company to the 
aforesaid meadow, where Capt. Church and his 
company met them. Crossing the enemies 5 track 
they made all haste until they got over Mattapoi- 
set-river,* about four miles beyond the ruins of 
Cook s house, where he appointed to meet his In 
dian company, whither he sent Dillano with two 
more to meet them ; ordering them, that if the In 
dians were not arrived to wait for them. Accord 
ingly, finding no Indians there, they waited until 
late in the night, when they arrived with their 
booty. They despatched a post to their Captain, 
to give him an account of their success ; but the 
day broke before they came to him; and when 
they had compared successes, they very remarka 
bly found that the number that each company had 
taken and slain, was equal. The Indians had killed 
three of the enemy, and taken sixty three prison 
ers, as the English had done before them. Both 
English and Indians were surprised at this remark 
able providence, and were both parties rejoicing 
at it; being both before afraid of what might have 
been the unequal success of the parties ; but the 
Indians had the fortune to take more arms than 
the English. They told the Captain, that they 
had missed a brave opportunity by parting; they 
came upon a great town of the enemy, viz. Cap 
tain Tyasks company. Tyasks was the next man 

* In Rochester. 


to Philip. They fired upon the enemy before 
they were discovered, and ran upon them with a 
shout; the men ran and left their wives and chil 
dren, and many of them their guns. They took 
Tyasks 5 wife and son, and thought that if their 
Captain and the English company had been with 
them they might have taken some hundreds of 
them; and now they determined not to part any 

That night Philip sent, as afterwards they 
found out, a great army to waylay Capt. Church 
at entering of Assawompset-neck; expecting he 
would have returned the same way he went in; 
but that was never his method to return the same 
way that he came; and at this time going another 
way, he escaped falling into the hands of his ene 
mies. The next day they went home by Scipican,* 
and got well with their prisoners to Plymouth. 

He soon went out again, and this stroke he 
drove many weeks ; and when he took any num 
ber of prisoners, he would pick out some that he 
took a fancy to, and would tell them, he took a 
particular fancy to them, and had chose them for 
himself to make soldiers of; and if any would be 
have themselves well, he would do well by them, 
and they should be his men, and not sold out of 
the country. If he perceived they looked surly, 
and his Indian soldiers called them treacherous 
dogs, as some of them would sometimes do, all the 
notice he would take of it, would only be to clap 
them on the back, and tell them, " Come, come, 
you look wild and surly, and mutter, but that sig- 

* In Rochester, about two miles to the eastward of 
Matapoiset, on the Shove. 


nifies nothing, these my best soldiers were a little 
while ago as wild and surly as you are now; by 
the time you have been but one day with me, you 
will love me too, and be as brisk as any of them. 1 " 
And it proved so; for there was none of them but, 
after they had been a little while with him, and 
seen his behaviour, and how cheerful and success 
ful his men were, would be as ready to pilot him 
to any place where the Indians dwelt, or haunted, 
though their own fathers or nearest relations 
should be among them, or to fight for him, as any 
of his own men. 

Capt. Church was in two particulars much ad 
vantaged by the great English army that was now 
abroad. One was, that they drove the enemy 
down to that part of the country, viz. to the east 
ward of Taunton river, by which his business was 
nearer home. The other was, that when he fell on 
with a push upon any body of the enemy, were they 
ever so many, they lied, expecting the great army. 
And their manner of marching through the woods 
was such, that, if they were discovered, they ap 
peared to be more than they really were; for they 
always marched at a wide distance one from the 
other, for their safety; and this was an Indian cus 
tom to march thin and scattered. Capt. Church 
inquired of some of the Indians that were become 
his soldiers, how they got such advantage often of 
the English in their marches through the woods? 
They told him that the Indians gained great ad 
vantage of the English by two things; the Indians 
always took care, in their marches and fights, not 
to come too thick together; but the English al 
ways kept in a heap together, that it was as easy 
to hit them as to hit a house. The other was. 


that if at any time they discovered a company of 
English soldiers in the woods, they knew that 
there were all, for the English never scattered, but 
the Indians always divided and scattered. 

Capt. Church was now at Plymouth, and some 
thing happened that kept him at home a few days, 
until a post came to Marshfield on a Lord s cUiy 
morning, informing the Governor that a great 
army of Indians were discovered, who, it was 
supposed, were designing to get over the river to 
wards Taunton or Bridgwater, to attack those 
towns that lay on that side the river. The Gov 
ernor hastened to Plymouth, raised what men 
he could by the way, arrived there in the be 
ginning of the forenoon exercise; sent for Capt. 
Church out of the meeting-house, gave him the 
news, and desired him immediately to rally what 
of his men he could; and what men he had raised 
should join them. The Captain bestirs himself, but 
found no bread in the store-house, and so was 
forced to run from house to house to get household 
bread for their march; neither this nor any thing 
else prevented his marching by the beginning of the 
afternoon exercise. Marching with what men were 
ready, he took with him the post that came from 
Bridgwater to pilot him to the place, where he 
thought he might meet with the enemy. In the 
evening they heard a smart firing at a distance 
from them; but it being near night, and the firing 
but of short, continuance, they missed the place, and 
went into Bridgwater town. It seems the occasion 
of the firing was, that Philip finding that Capt 
Church made that side of the country too hot for 
him, designed to return to the other side of the coun 
try that he came last from. And coming to Taun 


ton river with his company, they felled a great 
tree across the river, for a bridge to pass over on; 
and just as Philip s old uncle Akkompoin, and 
some other of his chiefs were passing over the 
tree, some brisk Bridgwater lads had ambushed 
them, fired upon them, and killed the old man and 
several others, which put a stop to their coming 
over the river that night. 

Next morning Capt. Church moved very early 
with his company, which was increased by many 
of Bridgwater, that enlisted under him for that 
expedition, and, by their piloting, soon came very 
still to the top of the great tree which the enemy 
had fallen across the river. The Captain espied 
an Indian sitting on the stump of it on the other 
side of the river, and he clapped his gun up, and 
had doubtless despatched him, but one of his 
own Indians called hastily to him, not to fire, for 
he believed it was one of their own men. Upon 
which the Indian upon the stump looked about, 
and Capt. Church s Indian seeing his face per 
ceived his mistake, for he knew him to be Philip; 
clapped up his gun and fired, but it was too late; 
for Philip immediately threw himself off the stump, 
leaped down a bank on the side of the river, and made 
his escape. Capt. Church, as soon as possible, got 
over the river, and scattered in quest of PhiJip 
and his company ; but the enemy scattered and 
fled every way. He picked up a considerable 
many of their women and children, among whom 
was Philip s wife, and son about nine years old. 
Discovering a considerable new track along the 
river, and examining the prisoners, found it was 
Q,unnappin and the Narragansets, that were 
drawing off from those parts towards the Narra- 


ganset country. He inquired of the prisoners, 
whether Philip was gone in the same track ? 
They told him they did not know, for he tied in 
a great fright when the first English gun was fir 
ed, and they had none of them seen or heard any 
thing of him since. Capt. Church left part of 
his company there to secure the prisoners, and to 
pick up what more they could find ; and with 
the rest of his company hastened in the track of 
the enemy, to overtake them, if possible, be 
fore they got over the river. So he ran some miles 
along the river, until he came to a place where 
the Indians had waded over ; and he with his 
company waded over after them up to their arms; 
being almost as wet before with sweat as the riv 
er could make them. Following about a mile 
further, and not overtaking them, and the Captain 
being under necessity to return that night to the 
army, came to a halt; told his company, he must 
return to his other men. His Indian soldiers 
moved for leave to pursue the enemy, though he 
returned; they said, the Narragansetts were great 
rogues, and they wanted to be revenged on them 
for killing some of their relations; named Tock- 
amona, Awashonk s brother, and some others. 
Capt. Churcft bid them go and prosper, made 
Lightfoot their chief, gave him the title of Cap 
tain, and bid them go and acquit themselves likg 
men. And away they scampered like so many 
horses. Next morning early they returned to 
their Captain, and informed him, that they had 
come up with the enemy, and killed several of 
them, and brought him thirteen of them prisoners; 
were mighty proud of their exploit, and rejoiced 
much at the opportunity of avenging themselves. 


Capt. Church sent the prisoners to Bridgwater, 
and sent out his scouts to see what enemies or 
tracks they could find; discovering some small 
tracks, he follows them, found where the enemy 
had kindled some fires, and roasted some ilesh, &,c. 
but had put out their fires and were gone. The 
Captain followed them by the track, putting his 
Indians in the front; some of which were such 
as he had newly taken from the enemy, and add 
ed to his company. Gave them orders to march 
softly, and upon hearing a whistle in the rear, to 
sit down till further orders; or, upon discovering 
any of the enemy, to stop, for his design was, 
if he could discover where the enemy were, not 
to fall upon them, unless necessitated to it, until 
next morning. The Indians in the front came 
up with many women and children, and others that 
were faint and tired, and so not able to keep up 
with the company; these gave them an account 
that Phillip, with a great number of the enemy, 
were a little before. Captain Church s Indians 
told the others, they were their prisoners, but if 
they would submit to order, and be still, no one 
should hurt them; they being their old acquaint 
ance, were easily persuaded to conform. A little 
before sunset there was a halt in the front, until 
the Captain came up. They told him that they dis 
covered the enemy. He ordered them to dog 
them, and watch their motion till it was dark. 
But Philip soon came to a stop, and fell to break 
ing and chopping wood, to make fires ; and a 
great noise they made. Captain Church draws 
his company up in a ring, and sat down in the 
swamp without any noise or fire. The Indian 
prisoners were much surprised to see the English 


soldiers; but the Captain told them, if they would 
be quiet and not make any disturbance or noise, 
they should meet with civil treatment; but if they 
made any disturbance, or offered to run, or make 
their escape, he would immediately kill them all; 
so they were very submissive and obsequious. 
When the day broke, Captain Church told his 
prisoners, that his expedition ,was such at this 
lime that he could not afford them any guard : 
told them, they would find it to be their interest 
to attend the orders he was now about to give 
them, which was, that when the fight was over, 
which they now expected, or as soon as the 
firing ceased, they must follow the track of his 
company, arid come to them. An Indian is 
next to a blood-hound to follow a track. He 
said to them, it would be in vain for them to 
think of disobedience, or to gain any thing by it, 
Tor he had taken and killed a great many of the 
Indian rebels, and should in a liltle time kill and 
take all the rest, &c. By this time it began to 
>) . so light, as the time that he usually chose to 
Uiuke his onset. So he moved, sending two soldiers 
before, to try if they could privately discover the 
enemies postures. But very unhappily it fell out, 
that the very same time Philip had sent two of 
his as a scout upon his own track, to see if none 
dogge 1 them, who espyed the two Indian men, 
and turned short about, and fled with all speed to 
their camp, and Captain Church pursued as fast 
as he could. The two Indians set a yelling and 
howling, and made the most hideous noise they 
could invent, soon gave the alarm to Philip and 
his camp, who all fled at the first tidings, left 
their kettles boiling, and meat roasting upon their 


wooden spits; and ran into a swamp with no other 
breakfast than what Captain Church afterwards 
treated them with. Captain Church pursuing, 
sent Mr. Isaac Howland with a party on one side 
)f the swamp, while himself with the rest, ran on 
the other side, agreeing to run on each side, until 
they met on the further end, placing some men in 
secure stands at that end of the swamp where 
Philip entered, concluding that if they headed him 
and beat him back, that he would take back in his 
own track. Captain Church and Mr. Howland 
soon met at the further end of the swamp, it not 
being a great one, where they met with a great 
number of the enemy, well armed, coming out of 
the swamp; but, on sight of the English, they 
seemed very much surprised, and tacked short. 
Captain Church called hastily to them, and said, 
If they fired one gun they were all dead men; for 
he would have them to know that he had them 
hemmed in, with a force sufficient to command 
them, but if they peaceably surrendered they 
should have good quarters, &c. They, seeing 
both Indians and English come so thick upon 
them, were so surprised that many of them stood 
still and let the English come and take the guns 
out of their hands, when they were both charged 
and cocked. 

Many, both men, women and children of the 
enemy, were imprisoned at this time, while Philip, 
Tispaquin, Totoson, &,c. concluded that the Eng 
lish would pursue them upon their tracks, so were 
waylaying their tracks at the first end of the 
swamp, hoping thereby to gain a shot upon Cap 
tain Church, who was now better employed in tak 
ing prisoners, and running them into a valley, in 


form something shaped like a punch-bowl, and ap 
pointing a guard of two files, treble armed with 
guns taken from the enemy. But Philip having 
waited all this while in vain, now moves on after 
the rest of his company to see what had become 
of them; and by this time, Capt. Church had got 
into the swamp ready to meet him; and as it hap 
pened made the first discovery, clapped behind a 
tree, until Philip s company came pretty near, 
and then fired upon them, killed many of them, 
and a close skirmish followed. Upon this, Philip 
having grounds sufficient to suspect the event of 
his company that went before them, fled back up 
on his own track; and coining to the place where 
the ambush lay, they fired on each other, and one 
Lucus of Plymouth, not being so careful as he 
might have been about his stand, was killed by 
the Indians. In this swamp skirmish, Captain 
Church with his two men, who always run by his 
side as his guard, met with three of the enemy, 
two of which surrendered themselves, and the 
Captain s guard seized them; but the other, being 
a great stout surly fellow, with his two locks tied 
up with red, and a great rattle snake skin hanging 
to the back part of his head, whom Captain 
Church concluded to be Totoson, ran from them 
into the swamp. Captain Church, in person, pur 
sued him close, till coming pretty near up with 
him, presented his gun Between his shoulders, but 
it missing fire, the Indian perceiving it, turned 
and presented at Captain Church, and missing 
fire also, their guns taking wet with the fog and 
dew of the morn tig; but the Indian turning short 
for another run, his foot tripped in a small grape 
vine, and he fell flat on his face. Capt. Church 


was by this time up with him, and struck the muz 
zle of his gun an inch and an half into the back 
part of his head, which despatched him without 
another blow. But Captain Church looking 
behind him saw Totoson, the Indian whom he 
thought he had killed, come flying at him like a 
dragon; but this happened to be fair in sight of 
the guard that were set to keep the prisoners, who, 
espying Totoson, and others that were following 
him, in this very seasonable juncture made a shot 
upon them and rescued their Captain, though he 
was in no small danger from his friends bullets, 
for some of them came so near him that he thought 
he felt the wind of them. The skirmish being 
over, they gathered their prisoners together, and 
found the number that they had killed and taken 
was 173, the prisoners which they took over night 
included, who after the skirmish came to them as 
they were ordered. 

Now having no provisions but what they took 
from the enemy, they hastened to Bridgwater, 
sending an express before to provide for them, 
their company being now very numerous. The 
gentlemen of Bridgwater met Capt. Church with 
great expressions of honour and thanks, and re 
ceived him and his army with all due respect and 
kind treatment. 

Capt. Church drove his prisoners that night in 
to Bridgwater pound, and set his Indian soldiers 
to guard them. They being well treated with 
victuals and drink, had a merry night; and the 
prisoners laughed as loud as the soldiers, not be 
ing so treated a long time before. 

Some of the Indians now said to Capt. Church, 
." Sir, you have now made Philip ready to die, for 


you have made him as poor and miserable as he 
used to make the English; you have now kill 
ed or taken all his relations. That they believed 
he would now soon have his head, and that this 
bout had almost broke his heart." 

The next day Capt. Church moved and arrived 
with all his prisoners safe at Plymouth. The 
great English army was now at Taunton, and 
Major Talcot with the Connecticut forces, being 
in these parts of the country, did considerable 
spoil upon the enemy. 

Now Capt. Church being arrived at Plymouth,, 
received thanks from the government for his good 
service, &LC. Many of his soldiers were disbanded; 
and he thought to rest himself a while, being 
much fatigued, and his health impaired, by exces 
sive heats and colds, and wading through rivers, 
&c. But it was not long before he was called 
upon to rally, upon advice that some of the enemy 
were discovered in Dartmouth woods. He took 
his Indians, and as many English volunteers as 
presented, to go with him; and scattering into 
small parcels, Mr. Jabez Howland, who was now. 
and often, his Lieutenant, arfd a worthy good sol 
dier, had the fortune to discover and imprison a 
parcel of the enemy. In the evening they met 
together at an appointed place, and by examining 
the prisoners, they gained intelligence of Toto- 
son s haunt; and being brisk in the morning, they 
soon gained an advantage of Totoson s compa 
ny, though he himself, with his son about eight 
years old, made their escape, and one old squaw 
with them, to Agawom, his own country. One 
Sam Barrow, as noted a rogue as any among the 
enemy, fell into the hands of the English at this 


time. Capt. Church told him, that, because of 
his inhuman murders and barbarities, the Court 
had allowed him no quarter, but was to be forth 
with put to death, and therefore he was to pre 
pare ikr it. Barrow replied, that the sentence of 
death against him was just, and that indeed he 
was ashamed to live any longer, and desired no 
more favour than to smoke a whiff of tobacco be 
fore his execution. When he had taken a few 
whiffs he said, " I am ready." Upon which one 
of Capt. Church s Indians sunk his hatchet into 
his brains. The famous Totoson arriving at Aga- 
"wom,*f his son, the last that was left of the fami 
ly, Captain Church having destroyed all the rest, 
fell sick. The wretch reflecting upon the mise- 
raljfcle condition he had brought himself into, his 
heart became a stone within him, and he died. 
The old squaw laid a few leaves and brush over 
him, and came to Sandwich, and gave this account 
of his death, and offered to show them where she 
left his body; but never had an opportunity, for 
she immediately fell sick and died also. 

Capt. Church being now at Plymouth again, 
weary and worn, would have gorre home to his 
wife and family, but the Government being solic 
itous to engage him in the service until Philip was 
slain, and promising him satisfaction and redress 
for some mistreatment that he had met with; he 
fixes for another expedition, He had soon vol 
unteers enough to make up the company he de 
sired, and marched through the woods until he 
came to Pocasset; and not seeing or hearing cf 

* Several places were called Agawom, as at Ipswich and 
Springfield. This Agawom lies in Wareham. 
I Formerly called Angawom, JV, E, Memorial. 


any of the enemy, they went over the ferry to 
Rhode- Island, to refresh themselves. The Cap 
tain, with about half a dozen in his company, took 
horses and rode about eight miles down the Island, 
to Mr. Sandford s, where he had left his wife. 
She no sooner saw him but fainted with surprise; 
and by the time she was a little revived, they es 
pied two horsemen coming on a great pace. 
Capt. Church told his company that those men," 
by their riding, came with tidings. When they 
came up they proved to be Major Sandford and 
Capt. Golding; who immediately asked Capt. 
Church what he would give to hear some news of 
Philip? He replied, that was what he wanted. 
They told him they had rode hard with some hopes 
of overtaking him, and were now come on purpose 
to inform him, that there was just now tidings 
from Mount-Hope; an Indian came down from 
thence, where Philip s camp now is, on to Sandy- 
point, over against Trip s, and hallooed, and made 
signs to be brought over; and being brought, he 
reported, that he was fled from Philip, who, said 
he, has killed my brother just before I came away, 
for giving some advice that displeased him. And 
said he was fled for fear of meeting with the same 
fate his brother had met with. He told them also 
that Philip was then in Mount-Hope neck. Capt. 
Church thanked- them for their good news, and 
said he hoped by to-morrow morning to have the 
rogue s head. The horses that he and his com 
pany came on, standing at the door, for they had 
not been unsaddled, his wife must content herself 
with a short visit when such game was ahead. 
They immediately mounted, set spurs to their 
horses, and away. 


The two gentlemen that brought him the tid 
ings, told him, they would gladly wait upon him 
to see the event of the expedition; he thanked 
them, and told them, he should be as fond of their 
company as any men s; and in short, they went 
with him. And they were soon at Tripp s ferry, 
with Captain Church s company, where the de 
serter was. He was a fellow of good sense, and 
told his story handsomely. He offered Captain 
Church to pilot him to Philip, and to help kill 
him, that he might revenge his brother s death. 
Told him, that Philip was now upon a little spot 
of upland, that was in the south end of the miry 
swamp, just at the foot of the mount, which was 
a spot of ground that Captain Church was well 
acquainted with. By the time they were got 
over the ferry and come near the ground, half the 
night was spent. The Captain commanded a 
halt, and brought the company together. He asked 
Major Sandford and Captain Golding s advice, 
what method was best to be taken in making the 
onset, but they declined giving him any advice, 
telling him, that his great experience and success 
forbid .their taking upon them to give advice. 
Then Captain CImrch offered Captain Golding 
the honor, if he would please to accept it, of beat 
ing up Philip s head quarters. He accepted the 
oifer, and had his allotted number drawn out to 
him, and the pilot. Captain Church s instruc 
tions to him were, to be very careful in his ap 
proach to the enemy, and be sure not to show 
himself, until by day light they might see and dis 
cern their own men from the enemy; told him 
also, that his custom in the like cases was, to creep 
with his company, on their bellies, until they 


came ns near as they could; and that as soon as 
the enemy discovered them, they would cry out; 
and that was the word for his men to fire and fall 
on. Directed him when the enemy should start, 
and take into the swamp, they should pursue with 
speed, every man shouting and making what noise 
he could; for he would give orders to his ambus 
cade to fire on any that should come silently. 

Captain Church knowing that it was Philip s 
custom to be foremost in the flight, went down to 
the swamp, and gave Captain Williams of Scitu- 
ate, the command of the right wing of the am 
bush, and placed an Englishman and an Indian 
together, behind such shelters of trees, &,c. as he 
could find, and took care to place them at such 
a distance, that none might pass, undiscovered be 
tween them. He charged them to be careful of 
themselves, and of hurting their friends, and to 
fire at any that should conic silently through the 
swamp; but it being somewhat further through 
the swamp than he was aware of, he wanted men 
to make up his ambuscade. Having placed what 
men he had, he took Major Sandford by the 
hand, and said, " Sir, I have so placed them, that 
it is scarce possible Philip can escape. The same 
moment a shot whistled over their heads, and then 
the noise of a gun towards Philip s camp. Capt. 
Church at first thought it might be some gun fired 
by accident; but before he could speak, a whole 
volley followed, which was earlier than he expect 
ed. One of Philip s gang going forth by himself, 
looked round him. Captain Golding thought the 
Indian looked directly at him, though probably it 
was only his conceit, so fired at Ijim, and upon 
his firing, tjie whole company that were with him 


fired upon the enemy s shelter, before the Indians 
had time to rise from their sleep, and so overshot 
them. But their shelter was open on that side 
next the swamp, and built so on purpose for the 
convenience of flight on occasion. They were 
soon in the swamp, and Philip the foremost, who 
starting at the first gun, threw his petunk and 
powder-horn over his head, catched up his gun, 
and ran as fast as he could scamper, without any 
more clothes than his small breeches and stockings, 
and ran directly on two of Captain Church s 
ambush. They let him come fair within shot, and 
the Englishman s gun missing fire, he bid the In 
dian fire away, and he did so to purpose, sent one 
musket bullet through his heart, and another not 
over two inches from it. He fell upon his face 
in the mud arid water, with his gun under him, 
By this time the enemy perceiving they were way- 
laid on the east side of the swamp, tacked short 
about. One of the enemy, who seemed to be a 
great surly old fellow, hallooed with a loud voice, 
and often called out, lootash, lootash. Captain 
Church called to his Indian Peter, and asked him 
who that was that called so? He answered, it 
was old Annawon,* Philip s great Captain, calling 

* In regard to the writing of this word, a diversity of 
opinions have arisen. Some urge that its termination 
ought to be written wan, others won. Mr. Benjaman Rod 
man, of New Bedford, has adopted that of it-cm, in naming a 
vessel and marmfactoring company. He says li it is more 
agreeable to analogy." Deference ought to be had to the 
opinion of this learned gentleman. No doubt, as this word 
is commonly understood, wan is more proper: but we, who 
never heard the native tongue, cannot tell but that they 
pronounced it as if written wun, allowing this to have been 
the case, it is certainly more proper to write wan. Hub- 
bard writes wan, and I am for uniformity. 


on his soldiers to stand to it, and fight stoutly. 
Now the enemy finding that place of the swamp 
wuich was not ambushed, many of them made 
their escape in the English tracks. The man 
that had shot down Philip, ran with all speed to 
Captain Church, and informed him of his exploit, 
who commanded him to be silent about it, and let 
no man know it, until they had driven the swamp 
clear. When they had driven the swamp through 
and found the enemy had escaped, or at least the 
most of them, and the sun now up, and so the dew 
gone, that they could not easily track them, 
the whole company met together at the place 
where the enemy s night shelter was. Then 
Captain Church gave them the news of Philip s 
death, upon which the whole army gave three 
loud huzzas. Captain Church ordered his body 
to be pulled out of the mire on the upland. So 
some of Captain Church s Indians took hold of 
him by his stockings, and some by his small 
breeches, being otherwise naked, and drew him 
through the mud to the upland; and a doleful, 
great, naked, dirty beast he looked like. Captain 
Church then said, forasmuch as he had caus 
ed many an Englishman s body to be unburied, 
and to rot above ground, that not one of his 
bones should be buried. And calling his old In 
dian executioner, bid him behead and quarter 
him. Accordingly he came with his hatchet, and 
stood over him, but before he struck, he made a 
small speech, directing it to Philip, and said, 
t; He had been a very great man, and had made 
many a man afraid of him, but so big as he was 
he would now chop his a e for him." And so 
he went to work, and did as he was ordered. 


Philip having one very remarkable hand, being 
much scarred, occasioned by the splitting of a pis 
tol in it formerly, Captain Church gave the head 
and that hand to Alderman, the Indian who shot 
him, to show to such gentlemen as would bestow 
gratuities upon him; and accordingly he got many 
a penny by it. 

This being on the last day of the week, the 
Captain with his company returned to the Island, 
tarried there until Tuesday, and then went off 
and ranged through all the woods to Plymouth, 
and received their premium, which was thirty 
shillings per head, for the enemies which they had 
killed or taken, instead of all wages; and Philip s 
head went at the same price. Methinks it was 
scanty reward and poor encouragement; though 
it was better than it had been for some time be 
fore. For this march they received four shillings 
and sixpence a man, which was all the reward 
they had, except the honor of killing Philip. 
This was in the latter end of August, 1676.* 

Capt. Church had been but a little while at 
Plymouth, before a post from Rehoboth came to 
inform the government that old Annawon, Philip s 
chief Captain,f was, with his company, ranging 

* The fall of King Philip, according to Hutchinson, took 
place on the 12th August, 1676. And this history clearly 
indicates that it happened early in the morning of a certain 
day, therefore, we are able to give the date of this memo 
rable event, with that exactness, which adds lustre to thq 
pages of history. 

t It will be recollected, that in a preceding page, Tyasks 
was mentioned as Philip s chief Captain; or, " the next man 
to Philip." See page 83. 

H ibbard says, " Tispequin was next to Philip." Page 
230, late edition. 



about their woods, and was very offensive and per 
nicious to Rehoboth and Swansey. Capt. Church 
was immediately sent for again, and treated with 
to engage in one expedition more. He told them, 
" Their encouragement was so poor, he feared his 
soldiers would be dull about going again. 5 But 
being a hearty friend to the cause, he rallies again; 
goes to Mr. Jabez Rowland, his old Lieutenant, 
and some of his soldiers that used to go out with 
him. Told them how the case was circumstanc 
ed, and that he had intelligence of old Annawon s 
walk and haunt, and wanted hands to hunt him. 
They did not want much entreating, but told him, 
they would go with him as long as there was an 
Indian in the woods. He moved and ranged 

through the woods to Pocasset. 


It being the latter end of the week, he proposed 
to go on to Rhode-Island, and rest until Monday; 
but on the Lord s day morning, there came a post 
to inform the Captain, that early the same morn 
ing a canoe with several Indians in it passed from 
Prudence-Island to Poppasquash neck.* Capt. 
Church thought if he could possibly surprise them 
be might probably gain some intelligence of more 
game; therefore he made all possible speed after 
them. The ferry-boat being out of the way, he 
made use of canoes; but by the time they had 
made two freights, and got over the Captain, and 
about fifteen or sixteen of his Indians, the wind 
sprung up with such violence, that canoes could 
not pass. The Captain seeing it was impossible 
for any more of his soldiers to come to him, he told 
his Indians, If they were willing to go with him, 

* On the west side of Bristol. 


he would go to Poppa squash, and see if they could 
catch some of the enemy Indians. They were 
willing to go, but were sorry they had no English 
soldiers. So they marched through the thickets 
that they might not be discovered, until they came 
to the salt meadow, to the northward of Bristol 
town, that now is. Then they heard a gun. The 
Captain looked about, not knowing but it might 
be some of his own company in the rear. So 
halting till they all came up, he found it was none 
of his own company that fired. Now, though he 
had but a few men, was minded to send some of 
them out on a scout. He moved it to Capt. 
Lightfoot to go with three more on a scout; he 
said he was willing, provided the Captain s man, 
Nathaniel, which was an Indian they had lately 
taken, might be one of them; because he was well 
acquainted with the neck, and coming lately 
from among them, knew how to call them. The 
Captain bid him choose his three companions, and 
go; and if they came across any of the enemy, not 
to kill them if they could possibly take them alive, 
that they might gain intelligence concerning An- 
nawon. The Captain with the rest of his com 
pany moved but a little way further towards Pop- 
pasquash, before they heard another gun, which 
seemed to be the same way with the other, but 
further off. They made no halt until they came 
into the narrow of Poppasquash neck. Here 
Capt. Church left three men to watch and see if 
any* should come out of the neck, and to inform 
the scout, when they returned, which way he was 

* Meaning the enemy. 


He parted the remainder of his company, half 
on one side of the neck, and the other with him 
self went on the other side of the neck, until they 
met; and meeting neither with Indians nor canoes, 
returned big with expectations of tidings by their 
scout. But when they came back to the three 
men at the narrow of the neck, they told their 
Captain the scout had not returned, and they had 
not heard nor seen any tiling of them. This filled 
them with thoughts of what had become of them. 

When they had waited an hour longer, it was 
very dark, and they despaired of their returning 
to them. Some of the Indians told their Captain, 
" They feared his new man, Nathaniel, had met 
with his old Mount- Hope friends, and had turned 
rogue. 5 They concluded to make no fires that 
night, and indeed they had no great need of any, 
for they had no victuals to cook, not so much as a 
morsel of bread with them. 

They took up their lodgings scattering, that if 
possibly their scout should come in the night, and 
whistle, which was their sign, some of them might 
hear them. They had a very solitary, hungry 
night. As soon as the day broke they drew off 
through the brush to a hill without the neck, and 
looking about them they espied one Indian man 
come running somewhat towards them. The 
Captain ordered one man to step out and show 
himself. Upon this the Indian ran directly to 
him, and who should it be but Capt. Liglitfoot, to 
their great joy. Capt. Church asb d him what 
news? He answered, Good new H- said that 
u They were all well, and had caught ten Indians, 
and that they guarded U.em all night jn one of the 
flankers of the old E ^lisn garrison; tLat their 


prisoners were part of Annawon s company, and 
that they had left their families in a swamp above 
Mattapoiset neck.*f" And as they were march 
ing towards the old garrison, Lightfoot gave 
Capt. Church a particular account of their exploit, 
viz. " That presently after they left him, they 
heard another gun, which seemed towards the In 
dian burying place, and moving that way, they 
discovered two of the enemy flaying a horse. The 
scout clapping into the brush, Nathaniel bid them 
sit down, and he would presently call all the In 
dians thereabout unto him. They hid, and he 
went a little distance back from them, and set up 
his note, and howled like a wolfe. One of the 
two immediately left his horse and came running 
to see who was there; and Nathaniel howling 
lower and lower drew him in between those that 
lay in wait for him, who seized him; continuing 
the same note, the other left the horse also, fol 
lowing his mate, and met with the same fate. 
When they had caught these two they examined 
them apart, and found them to agree in their story, 
that there were eight more come down into the 
neck to get provisions, and had agreed to meet at 
the burying place that evening. These two be 
ing some of Nathaniel s old acquaintance, he had 
great influence upon them, and with his enticing 
story, telling them what a brave Captain they had, 
how bravely he had lived since he had been with 
him, and how much they might better their con- 

* In Swanzey. There is another Mattapoiset in Roch 

t A small neck of land in the bottom of Taunton bay, in 
the midway between Mount Hope, and Pocasset neck. 



dition by turning to him, &c. so persuaded and 
engaged them to be on his side, which indeed now 
began to be the better side of the hedge. They 
waited but a little while before they espied the 
rest of theirs coming up to the burying place, and 
Nathaniel soon howled them in, as he had done 
their mates before. 

When Capt. Church came to the garrison, he 
met his Lieutenant and the rest of his company; 
and then making up good fires they fell to roast 
ing their horse-beef, enough to last them the 
whole day, but had not a morsel of bread; though 
salt they had, which they always carried in their 
pockets, and which, at this time, was very accept 
able to them. Their next motion was towards 
the place where the prisoners told them they had 
left their women and children, and surprised them 
all, and some others that were newly come to 
them. And upon examiation they held to one 
story, that it was hard to tell where to find An 
na won, for he never roosted twice in a place. 
Now a certain Indian soldier that Capt. Church 
had gained over to be on his side, prayed that he 
might have liberty to go and fetch in his father, 
who, he said, was about four miles from that 
place, in a swamp, with no other than a young 
squaw. Capt. Church inclined to go with him, 
thinking it might be in his way to gain some in 
telligence of Annawon; so taking one English- 

O ^ ^ 

man and a few Indians with him, leaving the rest 
there, he went with his new soldier to look for 
his father. When he came to the swamp he bid 
the Indian go and see if he could find his father. 
He was no sooner gone but Capt. Church discov 
ered a track coming down out of the woods; upon 


which he and his little company lay close, some 
on one side of the track and some on the other. 
They heard the Indian soldier make a howling 
for his father; and at length somebody answered 
him; but while they were listening, they thought 
they heard somebody coming towards them. They 
presently saw an old man coming up with a gun 
on his shoulder, and a young woman following, in 
a track which they lay by. They let them come 
up between them, and then started up and laid 
hold of them both. Capt Church immediately ex 
amined them apart, telling them what they must 
trust to if they told false stories. He asked the 
young woman what company they came from last? 
She said from Capt. Annawon s. He asked her 
how many were in company with him when she 
left him? She said, fifty or sixty. He asked her 
liow T many miles it was to the place where she left 
him? She said she did not understand mil^s, but 
he was up in Squannaconk swamp.* The old 
man, who had been one of Philip s council, upon 
examination, gave exactly the same account. 
Capt. Church asked him if they could get there 
that night? He said, if they went presently, and 
travelled stoutly, they might get there by sunset. 
He asked whither he was going? He answered^ 
tlmt Annawon had sent, him down to look for 
some Indians, that w r ere gone down into Mount- 
Hope neck to kill provisions. Capt. Church let 
him know that those Indians were all his prison 
ers. By this time came the Indian soldier, and 
brought his father and one Indian more. The 
Captain was now in a great strait of mind what 

* Southeasterly part of Rehoboth, 


to do next. He had a mind to give Anna won a 
visit, as he knew now where to find him; hut his 
company was very small, only half a dozen men 
beside himself, and was under the necessity of 
sending somebody back to acquaint his Lieu 
tenant and company with his proceedings.. How 
ever, he asked his small company, whether 
they would willingly go with him, and give 
Annawon a visit? They told him they were al 
ways ready to obey his commands, &,c. But 
withal, told him that they knew this Capt. Anna- 
won was a great soldier, that he had been a val 
iant Captain under Asuhmequin, Philip s father, 
and that he had been Philip s chieftain all this 
war; a very subtle man, and of great resolution, 
and had often said, that he would never be taken 
alive by the English. And moreover, they knew 
that the men that were with him, were resolute 
fellows, some of Philip s chief soldiers, and there 
fore feared whether it was practicable to make an 
attempt upon him with so small a handful of as 
sistants as were now with him. Told him fur 
ther, that it would be a pity that after all the 
great things he had done, he should throw away 
his life at last. Upon which he replied, That he 
doubted not Annawon was a subtle and valiant 
man; that he had a long time but in vain sought 
for him, and never till now could find his quar 
ters, and he was very loath to miss of the oppor 
tunity, and doubted not but that if they would 
cheerfully go with him, the same Almighty Prov 
idence that had hitherto protected and befriended 
them would do so still, &c. Upon this with one 
consent they said, they would go. Capt. Church 
then turned to one Cook of Plymouth, the only 


Englishman then with him, and asked him, What 
he thought of it? He replied, " Sir, I am never 
afraid of going any where when you are with me. r5 
Then Captain Church asked the old Indian, if he 
could take his horse with him? for he conveyed 
a horse thus far with him. He replied, that it was 
impossible for a horse to pass the swamps. There 
fore he sent away his new Indian soldier with his 
father and the Captain s horse to his Lieutenant, 
and orders for him to move to Taunton with the 
prisoners, to secure them there, and to come out 
in the morning, in the Rehoboth road, in which 
he might expect to meet him, if he were alive and 
had success. 

The Captain then asked the old fellow, if he 
would pilot him to Annawon? He answered, that 
he having given him his life, he was obliged to 
serve him. He bid him move on then, and they 
followed. The old man would out-travel them so 
far sometimes that they were almost out of sight, 
but looking over his shoulder, and seeing them 
behind, he would halt. Just as the sun was set 
ting, the old man made a full stop, and sat down; 
the company coming up also sat down, being all 
weary. Captain Church asked, what news? He 
answered, that about that time in the evening, 
Captain Annawon sent out his scouts to see if the 
coast was clear, and as soon as it began to grow 
dark the scouts returned. And then, said he, we 
may move again securely. When it began to 
grow dark the old man stood up again. Captain 
Church asked him, if he would take a gun and 
fight for him? He bowed very low, and prayed 
him not to impose such a thing upon him, as to 
fight against Captain Annawon his old friend. 


But says he, I will go along with you, and be 
helpful to you, and will lay hands on any man 
that shall offer to hurt you. It being now pretty 
dark, they moved close together; anon they heard 
a noise. The Captain stayed the old man with 
his hand, and asked his own men what noise they 
thought it might be? They concluded it to be the 
pounding of a mortar. The old man had given 
Captain Church a description of the place* where 
Annawon now lay, and of the difficulty of getting 
at him. Being sensible that they were pretty 
near them, with two of his Indians he creeps to 
the edge of the rocks, from whence he could see 
their camps. He saw three companies of Indians 
at a little distance from each other, being easy to 
be discovered by the light of their fires. He saw 
also the great Annawon and his company, who 
had formed his camp or kennelling-place, by fall 
ing a tree under the side of the great clefts of 
rocks, and setting a row of birch bushes up against 
it, where himself, his son, and some of his chiefs 
had taken up their lodging, and made great fires 
without them, and had their pots and kettles boil 
ing, and spits roasting. Their arms also he dis 
covered, all set together in a place fitted for the 
purpose, standing upon end against a stick lodged 
in two crotches, and a. mat placed over them, to 

* This solitary retreat is in Rehoboth, but so near Taun- 
lon line, that many, in telling this story, report it to be in 
the latter. It is in a swamp, and being a small rising ground, 
is at certain seasons almost surrounded by water. On this 
rise is a great rock, or rather ledge of rocks, rising up to con 
siderable height, and on the southeast side is an opening of 
an angular shape, in which was Annawon s tent. It appears 
that the reason of their not attacking him in front was, its 
rpen situation, consequently must have been discovered. 


keep them from the wet or dew. The old Anna- 
won s feet and his son s head were so near the 
arms, as almost to touch them; but the rocks 
were so steep that it was impossible to get down, 
only as they lowered themselves down by the 
bows, and the bushes that grew in the cracks of 
the rocks. Captain Church creeping back again 
to the old man, asked him if there was no possibil 
ity of getting at them some other way? He an 
swered no; that he and all that belonged to An- 
nawon were ordered to come that way, and none 
could come any other way without difficulty or 
danger of being shot. 

Captain Church then ordered the old man and 
his daughter to go down foremost, with their bas 
kets at their backs, that when Annawon saw them 
with their baskets he should not mistrust the in 
trigue. Captain Church and his handful of sol 
diers crept down also under the shadow of these 
two and their baskets, and the Captain himself 
crept close behind the old man, with his hatchet 
in his hand, and stepped over the young man s 
head to the arms. The young Annawon discovering 
him, wrapped his blanket over>his head and shrunk 
up in a heap. The old Captain Annawon start 
ed up on his breech, and cried out Ilowoh! and 
despairing of escape, threw himself back again, 
and lay silent until Captain Church had secured 
all the arms, &LC. And having secured that com 
pany, he sent his Indian soldiers to the other fires 
and companies, giving them instructions what to 
do and say. Accordingly, they went into the 
midst of them. When they discovered themselves 
who they were, told them that their Captain An 
na won was taken, and it would be best for them 


quietly and peaceably to surrender themselves, 
which would procure good quarters for them; for if 
they should pretend to resist or make their escape, 
it would be in vain, and they could expect no 
other but that Captain Church with his great army 
who had now entrapped them, would cut them to 
pieces; told them also, if they would submit them 
selves, and deliver up all their arms unto them, 
and keep every man his place until it was day, 
they would assure them that their Captain, who 
had been so kind to themselves when they surren 
dered to him, would be as kind to them. Now 
they being old acquaintance, and many of them 
relations, did much the readier give heed to what 
they said, and surrendered up their arms to them, 
both their guns and their hatchet, and were forth 
with carried to Captain Church. 

Things being so far settled, Captain Church 
asked Annawon, what he had for supper? for, 
said he, I am come to sup with you. Taubot, 
said Annawon, with a big voice, and looking 
about upon his women, bid them hasten and get 
Captain Church and his company some supper. 
Then turned to Captain Church and asked him, 
whether he would eat cow-beef or horse-beef? The 
Captain told him cow-beef would be most accept 
able. It was soon got ready, and pulling his lit 
tle bag of salt out of his pocket, which was all 
the provision he brought with him, he season 
ed his cow-beef, so that with it and the dried green 
corn, which the old squaw was pounding in the 
mortar, while they were sliding down the rocks, 
he made a very hearty supper. And this pound 
ing in the mortar proved lucky for Capt, Church s 
getting down the rocks; for when the old squaw 


pounded, they moved, and when she ceased, to 
turn the corn, they ceased creeping; the noise of 
the mortar prevented the enemy s hearing their 
creeping, and the corn being now dressed, sup 
plied the want of bread, and gave a fine relish 
with the cow-beef. Supper being over, Captain 
Church sent two of his own men to inform the 
other companies, that he had killed Philip, and 
had taken their friends in Mount-Hope neck, but 
had spared their livns, and that he had subdued 
now all the enemy, he supposed, excepting this 
company of Annawon s. And now if they would 
be orderly and keep their places until morning, 
they should have good quarters, and that he would 
carry them to Taunton, where they might see 
their friends again. 

The messengers returned, that the Indians 
yielded to his proposals. Capt. Church thought 
it was now time for him to take a nap, having 
had no sleep in two days and one night before; 
told his men if they would let him sleep two 
hours, they should sleep all the rest of the night. 
He laid himself down and endeavoured to sleep, 
but all disposition to sleep departed from him. 
After he had layed a little while he looked up to 
see how his watch managed, but found them all 
fast asleep. Now Capt. Church had told Capt. 
Annawon s company, as he had ordered his In 
dians to tell the others, that their lives should all 
be spared, excepting Capt. Annawon s, and it 
was not in his power to promise him his life, but 
he must carry him to his masters at Plymouth, 
and he would entreat them for his life. Now 
when Capt. Church found not only his own men, 
but all the Indians fast asleep, Aanawon only ex- 


cepted, whom he perceived was as broad awake 
as himself; and so they lay looking one upon the 
other perhaps an hour. Capt. Church said noth 
ing to him, for he could not speak Indian, and 
thought Annawon could not speak English; at 
length Annawon raised himself up, cast off his 
blanket, and with no more clothes than his small 
breeches, walked a little way back from the com 
pany. Capt. Church thought no other but that he 
had occasion to ease himself, and so walked to 
some distance rather than offend him. But by 
and by he was gone out of sight and hearing, and 
then Capt. Church began to suspect some ill de 
sign in him, and got all the guns close to him, 
and crouded himself close under young Annawon, 
that if he should any where get a gun he should 
not make a shot at him without endangering his 
son. Lying very still awhile, waiting the event, 
at length he heard somebody coming the same 
way that Annawon went. The moon now shin 
ing bright, he saw him at a distance coming with 
something in his hands, and coming up to Capt. 
Church, he fell upon his knees before him, and 
offered him what he had brought, and speaking in 
plain English, said, u Great Captain, you have 
killed Philip, and conquered his country; for I 
believe that 1 and my company are the last that 
war against the English, so suppose the war is 
ended by your means; and therefore these things 
belong unto you." Then opening his pack, he 
pulled out Philip s belt curiously wrought with 
wompom, being nine inches broad, wrought with 
black and white, in various figures and flowers, 
and pictures of many birds and beasts. This, 
when hung upon Mr. Church s shoulders, reach- 


ed bis ancles; and another belt of wompom he 
presented him, wrought after the former manner, 
which Philip was wont to put upon his head. It 
had two flags on the back part, w r hich hung down 
on his back, and another small belt with a star 
upon the end of it, which he used to hang on his 
breast; and they were all edged with red hair, 
which Annawon <said they got in the Mahog s 
country. Then he pulled out two horns of glaz 
ed powder, and a red cloth blanket. He told 
Capt. Church these were Philip s royalties, which 
he was wont to adorn himself with when he sat in 
state. That he thought himself happy that he 
had an opportunity to present them to Capt, 
Church, who had won them, &c. So they spent 
the remainder of the night in discourse; and he 
gave an account of what mighty success he had 
formerly in wars against many nations of Indians, 
when he served Asuhmequin, Philip s father, &,c. 
In the morning, as soon as it was light, the Cap 
tain matched with his prisoners out of that swam 
py country towards Taunton, met his Lieutenant 
and company about four miles out of town, who 
expressed a great deal of joy to see him again, 
and said, it was more than ever he expected. 
They went into Taunton, were civilly and kindly 
treated by the inhabitants; refreshed and rested 
themselves that night. Early next morning, the 
Captain took old Annawon, and half a dozen of 
his Indian soldiers, and his own man, and went to 
Rhode- Island, sending the rest of his company 
and his prisoners by his Lieutenant, to Plymouth. 
Tarrying two or three days upon the Island, he 
then went to Plymouth, and carried his wife and 
his two children with him. 


Capt. Church had been but a little while at 
Plymouth, when he was informed of a parcel of 
Indians who had haunted the woods between 
Plymouth and Sippican, that did great damage to 
the English, in killing their cattle, horses and 
swine; the Captain was soon in pursuit of them. 
Went out from Plymouth the next Monday in the 
afternoon, and next morning early they discover 
ed a tract. The Captain sent two Indians on the 
track to see what they could discover, while he 
and his company followed gently after; but the 
two Indians soon returned with tidings that they 
discovered the enemy sitting round their fires, in 
a thick place of brush. When they came pretty 
near the place, the Captain ordered every man to 
creep as he did, and surround them by creeping 
as near as they could, till they should be discov 
ered, and then to run on upon them and take them 
alive, if possible, for their prisoners were their 
pay. They did so, and took every one that was 
at the fires, not one escaping. Upon examina 
tion they agreed in their stories; that they belong 
ed to Tispaquin, who was gone with John Bump, 
and one more, to Agawom* and Sippican, f to kill 
horses, and were not expected back in two or 
three days. 

This same Tispaquin had been a great Captain, 
and the Indians reported that he was such a great 
Pauivau, that no bullet could enter him. Capt. 
Church said he would not have him killed, for 
there was a war broken out in the eastern part of 
the country, and he would have him saved to go 

* Wareham. 

| Rochester, two miles east of Matapoiset. 


with him to fight the eastern Indians. Agreea 
bly he left two old squaws, of the prisoners, and 
bid them tarry there until their Capt. Tispaquin 
returned, and to tell him that Church had been 
there, and had taken his wife and children, and 
company, and carried them down to Plymouth; 
and would spare all their lives, and his too, if he 
would come down to them, and bring the other 
two that were with him, and they should be his 
soldiers, &c. Capt. Church then returned to 
Plymouth, leaving the old squaws well provided 
for, and buisket for Tispaquin when he returned. 
Telling his soldiers that he doubted not but he 
had laid a trap that would take him. Captain 
Church two days after, went to Boston, the Com 
missioners then sitting, and waited upon the hon 
orable Gov. Leverett,* who then lay sick. He 
requested Capt. Church to give him some account 
of the war, who readily obliged his honor therein, 
to his great satisfaction, as he was pleased to ex 
press himself; taking him by the hand, and tell 
ing him, if it pleased God that he lived, he would 
make it a brace of a hundred pounds advantage to 
him out of the Massachusetts colony; and would 
endeavour that the rest of the colonies should do 
proportionably. But he died within a fortnight 
after, and so nothing was done of that nature. 
The same day Tispaquin came in, and those that 
were with him; but when Capt. Church returned 
from Boston, he found to his grief, the heads of 

; * Gov. John Leverett was a very distinguished man, both 
as a warrior and statesman. He was universally beloved 
in his life time, and. at his death, as deeply lamented. He 
died March 16th, 1678. 


Annawon, Tispaquin,* &c. cut off, which were 
the last of Philip s friends. The General Court 
of Plymouth, then sitting, sent for Capt. Church, 
who waited upon them accordingly, and received 
their thanks for his good service, which they unan 
imously voted, which was all that Capt. Church 
had for his aforesaid service. 

Afterwards, in the year 1676,f in the month of 
January, Capt. Church received a commission 
from Gov. Winslow, to scour the woods of some 
of the lurking enemy, which they were well in 
formed were there. Which commission is as 

Being well informed that there are certain par 
ties of our Indian enemies, remains of the people 
or allies of Philip, late Sachem of Mount-Hope, 
our . mortal enemy, that are still lurking in the 

* Hubbard, in defence of this conduct of the Court of 
Plymouth, says that Tispaquin was to become a Captain 
under Church, if (as he pretended and made his followers 
believe) he proved impenetrable to a ball; but he fell dead 
the first fire, which they thought a just reward for his de 
ception and cruelty while with Philip. The same author 
does not fail to find excuses for every inhuman act on the 
part of the English. Nothing can justify this hasty meas 
ure but cowardice; for it has too much the appearance of 
hanging a man after he is dead. Annawon was accused of 
torturing and murdering the English, which " he did not 
deny;" therefore, enough was found against him, so he was 
immediately put to death. 

The taking of Tispaquin is placed before that of Annawon 
by Hubbard; who must we charge with a blunder? 

| It is observable that Mr. Church is erroneous in his 
mention of Gov. Leverett, for by his account above, " An 
nawon, Tispaquin, &c." were put to death about the time 
the Governor died. But they were put to death soon after 
Philip was killed, in 1676, almost two years before the 
death of the Governor. 


woods, near some of our plantations, that go on 
to disturb the peace/of his Majesty s subjects in 
this and the neighbouring colonies, by their fre 
quent robberies, and other insolences. Captain 
Benjamin Church is therefore hereby nominated, 
ordered, commissioned, and empowered to raise a 
company of volunteers, consisting of English and 
Indians, so many as he shall judge necessary to 
improve in the present expedition, and can obtain. 
And of them to take the command and conduct, 
and to lead them forth unto such place or places 
within this or the neigbouring colonies, as he 
shall think fit, and as the providence of God, and 
his intelligence shall lead him; to discover, pur 
sue, fight, surprise, destroy, and subdue our said 
Indian enemies, or any party or parties of them, 
that, by the providence of God, they may meet 
with. Or them, or any of them, to receive to 
mercy, if he see cause; provided they be not mur 
derous rogues, or such as have been principal ac 
tors in those villanies. And, for the prosecution 
of this design, liberty is hereby granted to the 
said Capt. Church, and others, to arm and set 
out such of our friendly Indians, as he is willing 
to entertain. And for as much as all these our 
enemies that have been taken, or at any time may 
be taken, by our forces, have, by our Courts and 
Councils, been rendered lawful captives of war, 
and condemned to perpetual servitude; this Coun 
cil do also determine and hereby declare, that all 
such prisoners, as, by the blessing of God, 
the said Captain and company, or any of them, 
shall take, together with their arms and other 
plunder, shall be their own, and be distributed 
>among themselves, according to such agreement 


as they may make one with the other. And it 
shall be lawful, and is hereby warrantable, for 
him and them, to make sale of such prisoners as 
their perpetual slaves; or otherwise to retain them 
as they think meet, (they being such as the law 
allows to be kept.) Finally, the said Capt. 
Church, herein improving his best judgment and 
discretion, and utmost ability, faithfully to serve 
God, his Majesty s interest, and the interest of 
the Colony; and carefully governing his said com 
pany at home and abroad. These shall be unto 
him a full and complete commission, warrant and 
discharge. Given under the public Seal, Jan. 
15th, 1676. 


Accordingly Capt. Church, accompanied with 
several gentlemen and others, went out and took 
divers parties of Indians, in one of which there 
was a certain old man, whom Capt. Church seem 
ed to take particular notice of, and asking him 
where he belonged, he told him at Swanzey; the 
Captain asked his name, he replied, Conscience. 
Conscience, said the Captain smiling, then the 
war is over; for that was what they were search 
ing for, it being much wanted; and then returned 
the said Conscience to his post again at Swanzey, 
to a certain person the said Indian desired to be 
sold to, and then returned home. 





In the lime of Sir Edmund Andross * govern 
ment, began that bloody war in the eastern parts 
of New-England; so that immediately Sir Ed 
mund sent an express for Capt. Church; who, 
then being at Little Compton, received it on a 
Lord s day in the afternoon meeting. Going home 
after meeting, took his horse and set out for Bos 
ton, as ordered; and by sunrise next morning got 
to Braintree, where he met with Col. Page, on 
horseback, going to Weymouth and Hingham, to 
raise forces to go East, who said he was glad to 

* Andross came over as Governor of New-York, in 1674. 
Was appointed Governor of New-England, and arrived in 
Boston, 29th December, 1686. He is spoken of by all our 
historians, as a quarrelsome and oppressive man, possessing 
strong prejudicies against the people of Massachusetts. 
Having considerable power, did not fail to exert it. He 
was checked, however, on the accession of William and Ma 
ry; at the news of which in Boston, the people in transports 
of joy rose up in arms. Sir Edmund retired to the fort but 
surrendered soon after. He was confined in the fort for 
some time. In 1692, after matters were settled, he was ap 
pointed Governor of Virginia, and arrived there in Februa 
ry. He died in London, Feb. 24, 1713. 


see him, and that his Excellency would be as glad 
to see him in Boston so early. So parting he 
soon got to Boston and waited upon his Excel 
lency. He informed him of an- unhappy war 
broken out in the Eastern parts; and said, he was 
going himself in person, and that he wanted his 
company with him. But Capt. Church not find 
ing himself in the same spirit he used to have, said, 
he hoped his Excellency would give him time to 
consider of it. He told him he might; and also 
said that he must come and dine with him. Capt. 
Church having many acquaintances in Boston, who 
made it their buisness, some to encourage, and oth 
ers to discourage him from going with his Excel 
lency. So after dinner his Excellency took him 
into his room and discoursed freely; saying, that 
he had knowledge of his former actions and 
successes; and that he must go with him, and be 
his second, with other encouragements. But in 
short, the said Church did not accept; so was dis 
missed and w r ent home. Soon after this was the 
revolution, and the other government reassumed; 
and then Gov. Bradstreet* sent for Capt. Church 
to come to Boston, as soon as his buisness would 
permit, whereupon he went to Boston and waited 
upon his Honour, who told him he was requested 
by the Council to send for him, to see if he could 
be prevailed with to raise volunteers both English 
and Indians to go East, for the Eastward Indians 
had done great spoil upon the English in those 
parts; giving him an account of the miseries and 

* " One of the Fathers of Massachusetts;" yet he did not. 
pass without sensure and difficulty, but he passed on calmly 
in his duty, and was a worthy example of rectitude. He 
at Salem, 27th March, 1697, aged 95 years. 


sufferings of the people there. Capt. Church s 
spirits being affected, said, if he could do any ser 
vice for his Honour, the country, and their relief, 
he was ready and willing. He was asked how he 
would act? He said he would take with him as 
many of his old soldiers as he could get, both 
English and Indians, &,c. The gentlemen of 
Boston requested him to go to Rhode-Island Gov 
ernment to ask their assistance. 80 giving him 
their letter, and about forty shillings in money, he 
took leave, and went home to Bristol on a Satur 
day, and the next Monday morning he went over 
to Rhode-Island, and waited upon their Governor, 
delivering the letter as ordered; prayed his Hon 
our for a speedy answer. Who said, they could 
not give an answer presently; so he waited on 
them till he had their answer; and when he had 
obtained it, he carried it to Boston gentlemen, 
who desired him to raise what volunteers he could 
in Plymouth colony, and Rhode-Island Govern 
ment, and what was wanting they would make up 
out of theirs, that were already out in the Eastern 
parts. The summer being far spent, Capt. Church 
made what despatch he could, and raised about 
250 volunteers, and received his commission from 
Gov. Hinkley, which is as followeth, viz. 

" The Council of War of their Majesties 9 Colony 
of New-Plymouth, in New-England; to Maj. 
Benjamin Church, Commander in Chief. 

" WHEREAS the Kennebeck and Eastern In 
dians with their confederates, have openly made 
war upon their Majesties subjects of the prov 
inces of Maine, New-Hampshire, and of the Mas 
sachusetts Colony; having committed many bar- 


barons murders, spoils and rapines upon their per 
sons and estates. And whereas there are some 
forces of soldiers, English and Indians, now raised 
and detached out of the several regiments and 
places within this Colony of New-Plymouth, to 
go forth to the assistance of our neighbours and 
friends, of the aforesaid provinces and colony of 
the Massachusetts, subjects of one and the same 
crown; and to join with their forces for the repel 
ling and destruction of the common enemy. And 
whereas you, Benjamin Church, are appointed to 
be Major and Commander in Chief, of all the 
forces, English and Indians, detached within this 
colony, for the service of their Majesties aforesaid, 
these are in their Majesties name to authorize and 
require you, to take into your care and conduct, 
all the said forces, English and Indians, and dili 
gently to attend that service, by the leading and 
exercising of your inferiour officers and soldiers, 
Commanding them to obey you as their chief com 
mander; and to pursue, fight, take, kill, or destroy 
the said enemies, their aiders and abettors, by all 
the ways and means you can, as you shall have 
opportunity. And you are to observe and obey 
ail such orders and instructions, as from time to 
time you shall receive from the Commissioners of 
the Colonies, the Council of War of this Colony, 
or the Governor and Council of the Massachusetts 
Colony. In testimony whereof the public seal of 
the said Colony of New-Plymouth, is hereunto 
affixed. Dated in Plymouth, the sixth day of Sep 
tember, Anno Domini 1689. Jlnnoque regni 
Regis ct Regince Willielmi et Marioe Jlii 
4r Primo. 



And now marching them all down to Boston, 
then received his further orders and instructions, 
which were as folio weth. 

Boston, Sept. 16, 1689. 
" To all Sheriffs, Marshalls, Constables, and oth 
er Officers military and civil, in their Majesties 
province of Maine. 

"WHEREAS, pursuant to an agreement of the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies, Major 
Benjamin Church is commissioned Commander 
in Chief over that part of their Majesties forces, 
levied for the present expedition against the com 
mon enemy, whose head quarters are appointed to 
be at Falmouth, in Casco Bay. In their Majes 
ties names, you, and every of you are required to 
be aiding and assisting to the said Major Church 
in his pursuit of the enemy, as any emergency 
shall require; and so impress boats, or other ves 
sels, carts, carriages, horses, oxen, provision and 
ammunition, and men for guides, &,c. as you shall 
receive warrants from the said Chief Commander, 
or his Lieutenant so to do. You may not fail to 
do the same speedily and effectually, as you will 
answer your neglect and contempt of their Majes-^ 
lies authority and service, at your uttermost peril. 
Given under my hand and seal, the day and year 
above written. Jinnoque Regni Regis et Regi- 
nee Willielmi and Mario3 Pri/no. 

Pres. of the province o 


By the Governor and Council of the Massachu 
setts Colony. To Major Benjamin Church. 

"WHEREAS, you are appointed and commis 
sioned by the Council of War, of the colony of 
New-Plymouth, Commander in Chief of the forces 
raised within the said colony, against the com 
mon Indian enemy, now ordered into the Eastern 
parts, to join with some of the forces of this colo 
ny; for the prosecution, repelling and subduing of 
the said enemy. It is therefore ordered that 
Capt. Simon Willard, and Capt. Nathaniel Hall, 
with the two companies of soldiers under their sev 
eral command, belonging to this colony, now in 
or about Casco Bay, be, and are hereby put under 
you, as their Commander in Chief for this pres 
ent expedition. And in pursuance of the com 
missions severally given to either of them, they 
are ordered to observe and obey your orders and 
directions, as their Commander in Chief, until 
further order from the Governor and Council, or 
the Commissioners of the colonies. Dated in 
Boston, September 17, Anno Domini 1689. 
.Innoque Regni Regis et Regince Guilielmi ct 
.Mar ice, Jlnglw, fyc. Primo. 

" Passed in Council, 
fittest. ISAAC ADDINGTON, Sec ry." 


By the Commissioners of the colonies of the Mas 
sachusetts, Plymouth and Connecticut, for 
managing the present war against the common 

" Instructions for Major Benjamin Church, Com 
mander in Chief of the Plymouth forces, with 
others of the Massachusetts, put under his com 

" IN pursuance of the commission given you, 
for their Majesties 9 service in the present expedi 
tion against the common Indian enemy, their aid 
ers and abettors; reposing confidence in your 
wisdom, prudence and fidelity in the trust com 
mitted to you, for the honour of God, good of his 
people, and the security of the interest of Christ 
and his churches, expecting and praying that in 
your dependence upon him, you may be helped 
and assisted with all that grace and wisdom which 
is requisite for carrying you on with success in 
this difficult service; and though much is and must 
be left to your discretion, as Providence and op 
portunity may present from time to time in places 
of attendance; yet, the following instructions are 
commended unto your observation, and to be at 
tended to so far as the state of matters with you 
in such a transaction will admit. You are with 
oil possible speed to take care that the Plymouth 
forces, both English and Indians, under your com 
mand, be fixed and ready, and the first opportuni 
ty of wind and weather, to go on board such ves 
sels as are provided to transport you and them to 
Casco, where, if it shall please God you arrive, you 
are to take under your care and command the com 
panies of Capt. Nathaniel Hall, and Capt. Simon 


Willard, who are ordered to attend your com 
mand, whom, together with the Plymouth forces, 
and such as from time to time may be added unto 
you, you are to improve in such way as you shall 
see meet; for the discovering, pursuing, and subdu 
ing and destroying the said common enemy, by all 
opportunities you are capable of ; always intend 
ing the preserving of any of the near towns from 
incursions, and destruction of the enemy, yet chiefly 
improving your men for the finding and following 
the said enemy abroad, and if possible to find out 
and attack their head quarters and principal ren 
dezvous, if you find you are in a rational capaci 
ty of so doing. The better to enable you there* 
to, we have ordered two men of war sloops, and 
other small vessels for transportation to attend you, 
for some consiberable time. You are to see that 
your soldiers arms be always fixed, and that they 
be furnished with ammunition, provisions and oth 
er necessaries, that so they may be in a readiness 
to repel and attack the enemy. In your pursuit 
you are to take special care to avoid danger by 
ambushments, or being drawn under any disad 
vantage by the enemy in your marches, keeping 
out scouts and a forlorn hope before your main 
body, and by all possible means endeavouring to 
surprise some of the enemy, that so you may gain 
intelligence. You are to suppress all mutinies 
and disorders among your soldiers, as much as in 
you lies, and to punish such as disobey your offi 
cers, according to the rules of war herewith given 

" You are, according to your opportunity, or 
any occasion, more than ordinary occurring, to 
hold correspondence with Major Swaine, and to 


yield mutual assistance when, as you are capable 
of it, and you may have reason to judge it will be 
of most public service; and it will be meet you 
and he should agree of some signal whereby your 
Indians may be known from the enemy. You are 
to encourage your soldiers to be industrious, vig 
orous, and venturous in their service, to search 
and destroy the enemy, acquainting them, it is 
agreed by the several colonies, that they shall 
have the benefit of the captives, and all lawful 
plunder, and the reward of eight pounds per head, 
for every fighting Indian man slain by them, over 
and above their stated wages; the same being 
made appear to the Commander in Chief, or such 
as shall be appointed to take care therein. If 
your Commission Officers, or any of them should 
be slain, or otherwise uncapable of service, and 
for such dismissed, you are to appoint others in 
their room, who shall have the like wages, and a 
commission sent upon notice given, you to give 
them commissions in the mean time. You are to 
take effectual care that the worship of God be 
kept up in the army, morning and evening prayer 
attended as far as may be, and as the emergen 
cies of your affairs will admit, to see that the Holy 
Sabbath be duly sanctified. You are to take care as 
much as may be, to prevent or punish drunkenness, 
swearing, cursing, or such other sins, as do pro 
voke the anger of God. You are to advise with 
your chief Officers in any matters of moment, as 
you shall have opportunity. You are from time 
to time to give intelligence and advice to the Gov 
ernor and Council of the Massachusetts or Com 
missioners of the colonies, of your proceedings 
and occurrences that may happen, and how it shall 


please the Lord to deal with you in this present 

" If you find the vessels are not likely to be 
serviceable to you, dismiss them as soon as you 

^Captain Sylvanus Davis* is a prudent man, 
and well acquainted with the affairs of those parts, 
and is written unto to advise and inform you all he 

" Such further instructions as we shall see rea 
son to send unto you, you are carefully to attend 
and observe, and in the absence of the Commis 
sioners, you shall observe the orders and instruc 
tions directed unto you from the Governor and 
Council of the Massachusetts. 

" Given under our hands in Boston, Sept. 18, 


* This is the Captain Davis, who, in the year 1676, made 
his escape so narrowly with his life from the fort at Arrow- 
sick island. The Indians in the night had concealed them 
selves under the walls of the fort, and at day-light, as the 
sentinel retired from the gate, they rushed in and fired on 
every one they saw. Captain Davis with Captain Lake 
escaped out of the back door of *a house, ran down to the 
water and crossed over. Capt. Lake was shot down as 
he landed, and Captain Davis escaped with a wound. He 
was afterwards a member of the Council of Massachusetts. 
In and about the fort 52 persons were killed and taken. 




BEING ready, Major Church embarked with 
his forces on board the vessels provided to trans 
port them to Casco, having a brave gale at S. W. 
and on Friday about three o clock they got in 
sight of Casco harbour; and discovering two or 
three small ships there, not knowing whether they 
were friends or enemies; whereupon the said Com 
mander, Major Church, gave orders for every 
man that was able to make ready, and all lie 
close, giving orders how they should act in case 
they were enemies. He, in the Mary sloop, to 
gether with the Resolution, went in first, being 
both well fitted with guns and men. On coming 
to the first, he hailed them, who said they were 
friends, and presently manned their boat, brought 
to, and so came along side of them. They gave 
the said Church an account, that yesterday there 
were a very great army of Indians and French 
with them, upon the island, at the going out of 
the harbour; and that they were come on pur 
pose to take Casco fort and town; likewise in 
formed him that they had got a captive woman on 
board, Major Walden s daughter, of Piscataqua,* 
that could give him a full account of their number 
and intentions. He bid them give his service to 
their Captain, and tell him he would wait upon 
him after he had been on shore, and given some 
orders and directions. Being come pretty near, 
he ordered all the men still to keep close, giving 

* A considerable river in New-Hampshire, on which 
stands Portsmouth, the largest town in the state. 


account of the news he had received, and then 
went ashore. Several of the chief men of the 
town came out to meet him, being glad that he 
had come so happily to their relief. They told 
him the news which Mrs. Lee had before, being 
the woman aforesaid. He went to Captain Da- 
vis s, to get some refreshment, not having eaten 
a morsel since he came by Boston castle. Now 
having inquired into the state of the town, found 
them in a poor condition to defend themselves 
against such a number of enemies. He gave them 
an account of his orders and instructions, and told 
them what forces he had brought, and that when 
it was dark they should all land, and not before, 
lest the enemy should discover them. And then 
he went on board the privateer, which was a 
Dutchman; but as he went he called on board 
every vessel, and ordered the officers to take care 
that their men might be all fitted and provided to 
fight, for the people of the town expected the en 
emy to fall upon them every minute, but withal, 
charging them to keep undiscovered. Then com 
ing on board said privateer, he was kindly treat 
ed, discoursed with Mrs. Lee, who informed him 
that the company she came w r ith had fourscore ca 
noes, and that there were more of them, whom 
she had not seen, which came from other places; 
and that they told her, when they came all to 
gether, should make up 700 men. He asked her 
whether Casteen* was with them? She answered 
that there were several French men with them, 
but did not know whether Casteen was there or 

* Castine. A French Baron, who lived among the Indians 
at Penobscot. He supplied the Indians with articles for 
the war. HUTCHINSOA T . 


not. He having got what intelligence she could 
give him, went ashore, viewed the fort and town, 
and discoursed with the gentlemen there according 
to his instructions. And when it began to grow 
dark, he ordered the vessels to come as near the 
fort as might be, and land the soldiers with as lit 
tle noise as possible; ordering them as they land 
ed to go into the fort, and houses that stood near; 
that so they might be ready upon occasion. Hav 
ing ordered provisions for them, he went to every 
company, and ordered them to get every thing 
ready; they that had no powder-horns, or shot- 
bags, should immediately make them; ordered the 
officers to take special care that they were ready 
to march into the woods an hour before day; and 
also, directing the watch to call him two hours 
before day; so he hastened to bed to get some 

At the time prefixed he was called, and pres 
ently ordered the companies to make ready, and 
about half an hour before day they moved. Sev 
eral of the town s people went with them into a 
thick place of brush, about half a mile from the 
town. Now ordering them to send out their 
scouts, as they used to do, and seeing them all 
settled at their work, he went into town by sun 
rise again, and desired the inhabitants to take care 
of themselves, till his men had fitted themselves 
with some necessaries, for his Indians, most of 
them, wanted both bags and horns; so he ordered 
them to make bags like wallets, to put powder in. 
one end, and shot in the other. So most of them 
were ready for action, viz. the Seconet Indians; 
but the Cape Indians w r ere very bare, lying so 
long at Boston before they embarked, that they 


had sold every thing they could make a penny of, 
some tying shot and powder in the corners of their 
blankets. He being in town, just going to break 
fast, there was an alarm; so he ordered all the sol 
diers in town to move away as fast as they could, 
where the firing was. And he, with what men 
were with him of his soldiers, moved immediately. 
They met with Capt. Bracket s sons, who told 
him their father was taken, and that they saw a 
great army of Indians in their father s orchard, &LC. 
By this time our Indians that wanted bags and 
horns were fitted, but wanted more ammunition. 
Presently came a messenger to him from the town 
and informed him, that they had knocked out the 
heads of several casks of bullets, and they were all 
too big being musket bullets, and would not fit 
their guns; and that if he did not go back himself 
a great part of the army would be kept back from 
service for want of suitable bullets. 

He ran back and ordered every vessel to send 
ashore all their casks of bullets; being brought 
knocked out their heads, and turned them all out 
upon the green, by the fort, and set all the people 
in the town, that were able, to make slugs; being 
most of them too large for their use, which had 
like to have been the overthrow of their whole 
army. He finding some small bullets, and what 
slugs were made, and three knapsacks of powder, 
went immediately to the army, who were very hotly 
engaged; but coming to the river the tide was up; 
he called to his men that were engaged, en 
couraging them, and told them he had brought 
more ammunition for them. An Indian called 
Capt. Lightfoot, laid down his gun, and came 
over the river, taking the powder upon his head, 


and a kettle of bullets in each hand, and got safe 
to his fellow soldiers. He perceiving great firing 
upon that side he was on, went to see who they 
were, and found them to be two of Major Church s 
companies, one of English and the other of Indians, 
being in all about four score men, that had not got 
over the river, but lay firing over our men s heads 
at the enemy. He presently ordered them to 
rally, and come all together; and gave the word 
for a Casco man; so one Swarton, a Jersey man, 
appearing, whom he could hardly understand; he 
asked him how far it was to the head of the river, 
or whether there was any place to get over? He 
said there was a bridge about three quarters of a 
mile up, where they might get over. So he call 
ing to his soldiers engaged on the other side, that 
he would soon be with them over the bridge, and 
come upon the backs of the enemy, which put new 
courage into them. So they immediately moved 
up towards the bridge, marching very thin, being 
willing to make what show they could, and shout 
ing as they marched. They saw the enemy running 
from the river- side, where they had made stands 
with wood to prevent any body from coming over 
the river; and coming to the bridge, they saw on 
the other side, that the enemy had laid logs, and 
stuck birch brush along to hide themselves from 
our view. 

He, ordered the company to come altogether, 
bidding them all to run after him, that would go 
first, and that as soon as they got over the bridge 
to scatter, that so they might not be all shot down 
together; expecting the enemy to be at their stands. 
So running up to the stands, found none there, 
but were just gone, the ground being much turn- 



bled with them behind the said stands. He or 
dered the Captain with his company of English to 
march down to our men engaged, and that they 
should keep along upon the edge of the marsh, 
and himself with his Indian soldiers would march 
down through the brush. And coming to a parcel 
of low ground, which had been formerly burnt, 
the old brush being fallen down, lay very thick, 
and the young brush being grown up, made it bad 
travelling; but coming near the back of the enemy, 
one of the men called to the commander, and said 
that the enemy run westward to get between us 
and the bridge, and he looking that way saw 
men running, and making a small stop, heard no 
firing, but a great choping with hatchets. So con 
cluding the fight was over, made the best of their 
way to the bridge again, lest the enemy should 
get over the bridge into the town. The men 
being most of them out, our ammunition lay ex 
posed, coming to the bridge, where he left six 
Indians for an ambuscade on the other side of the 
river, that if any enemy offered to come over, they 
should fire at them, which would give him notice, 
so he would come to their assistance. But in the 
way, having heard no firing nor shouting, conclud 
ed the enemy were drawn off. He asked the 
ambuscade, whether they saw any Indians? They 
said yes, abundance. He asked them where? 
They answered, that they ran over the head of the 
river by the cedar swamp, and were running into 
the neck towards the town. 

There being but one Englishman with him, he 
bid his Indian soldiers scatter and run very thin, 
to preserve themselves, and be the better able to 
make a discovery of the enemy. And soon coin- 



ing to Lieut. Clark s field, on the south side of 
the neck, and seeing the cattle feeding quietly, 
and perceiving no track, concluded the ambuscade 
had told them a falsehood. They hastily returned 
back to the said bridge, perceiving there was no 
noise of the enemy. He hearing several great 
guns at the town, concluded that they were either 
assaulted, or that they had discovered the enemy; 
having ordered that in case such should be, that 
they should fire some of their great guns, to give 
him notice. He being a stranger to the country, 
concluded the enemy had by some other way got 
to the town; whereupon he sent his men to the 
town, and himself going to the river, near where 
the fight had been, asked them how they did, and 
what was become of the enemy? who informed 
him that the enemy drew off in less than an hour 
after he left them, and had not fired a gun at them 
since. He told them he had been within little 
more than a gun shot of the back of the enemy, 
and had been upon them had it not been for thick 
brushy ground, &c. Now some of his men re 
turning from the town, gave him the account, that 
they went while they saw the colours standing, 
and men walking about as not molested. He 
presently ordered that all his army should pursue 
the enemy; but they told him that most of them 
had spent their ammunition, and that if the enemy 
had engaged them a little longer they might have 
come and knocked them on the head; and that 
some of their bullets were so unsizable that some 
of them were forced to make slugs while they 
were engaged. He then ordered them to get 
over all the wounded and dead men, and to leave 
none behind; which was done. Capt. Hall and 


his men being first engaged did great service, and 
suffered the greatest loss; but Capt. Southworth 
with his company, and Capt. Numposh with the 
Seconet Indians, and the most of the men belong 
ing to the town, all coming suddenly to his relief, 
prevented him and his whole company from being 
cut off. 

By this time the day was far spent, and march 
ing into town about sunset, carried in all their 
wounded and dead men, being all sensible of God s 
goodness to them, in giving them the victory, and 
causing the enemy to fly with shame, who never 
gave one shout at their drawing off. The poor 
inhabitants wonderfully rejoiced that the Almighty 
had favoured them so much; saying, that if Maj. 
Church, with his forces, had not come at that 
juncture, they had been all cut off; and said fur 
ther, that it was the first time that the Eastward 
Indians had been- put to flight, and the said Church 
with his volunteers were wonderfully preserved, 
Laving never a man killed outright, and but one 
Indian mortally wounded, several more being badly 
wounded, but recovered. 

After this engagement, Maj. Church, with his 
forces, ranging all the country thereabout, in pur- 
v.fjit of the enemy; and visiting all the garrisons at 
Black-Point, Spurwink, and Blue-Point, and 
went up Iveimebeck river, but to little effect. 
And now winter drawing near, he received orders 
from the Government of the Massachusetts-Bay, 
to settle ail the garrisons, and put in suitable offi 
cers according to his best discretion, and to send 
home all his soldiers, volunteers and transports; 
which orders he presently obeyed. Being obliged 
to buy him a horse to go home by land, that so he 


might the better comply with his orders. The 
poor people, the inhabitants of Casco, and places 
adjacent, when they saw he was going away from 
them, lamented sadly, and begged earnestly that 
he would suffer them to come away in the trans 
ports; saying that, if he left them there, in the 
spring of the year, the enemy would come and des 
troy them, and their families. So by their earnest 
request the said Maj. Church promised them, that 
if the governments that had now sent him, would 
send him the next spring, he would certainly 
come with his volunteers and Indians to their relief. 
And that as soon as he had been home, and taken 
a little care of his own buisness, he would cer 
tainly wait upon the gentlemen of Boston, and in 
form them of the premise he had made to them; 
and if they did not see cause to send them relief, 
to entreat their honours seasonably to draw them 
off, that they might not be a prey to the barbarous 

Taking his leave of those poor inhabitants, some 
of the chief men there waited upon him to Black- 
Point, to Capt. Scottaway s garrison. Coming 
there, they prevailed with the said Capt. Scotta- 
way, to go with him to Boston, provided the said 
Church would put another in, to command the 
garrison; which being done, and taking their leave 
one of another, they set out and travelled through 
all the country, home to Boston. Having em 
ployed himself to the utmost, to fulfil his instruc 
tions last received from Boston gentlemen, which 
cost him about a month s service over and above 
what he had pay for, from the Plymouth gentle 
men. And in his travel homeward, several gen 
tlemen waited upon the said Maj. Church, who 


was obliged to bear their expenses. When he 
came to Boston gentlemen, he informed them of 
the miseries which those poor people were in by 
having their provisions taken from them by order 
of the President, &LC. then went home. He 
staid not long there before he returned to Boston, 
where Capt. Scottaway waited for his coming, 
that he might have the determination of the gov 
ernment of Boston, to carry home with him. It 
being the time of the small-pox there, and Maj. 
Church not having had it, taking up his lodging 
near the Court- House, took the first opportunity 
to inform the Court of his buisness. They said 
they were very busy in sending home Sir Edmund,* 
the ship being ready to sail. Maj. Church still 
waiting upon them, and at every opportunity en 
treating those gentlemen in behalf of the poor peo 
ple of Casco, urging the necessity of taking care 
of them, either by sending them relief early in the 
spring, or suffering them to draw off, otherwise 
they would certainly be destroyed. Their answer 
was, they could do nothing till Sir Edmund was 
gone. Waiting there three weeks on great ex 
pense, he concluded to draw up some of the cir 
cumstances of Casco, and places adjacent, and to 
leave it upon the Council Board, before the Gov 
ernor and Council. Having got it done, he ob 
tained liberty to go up where the Governor and 
Council were sitting, and informed their honours, 
that he had waited till his patience was worn out, 
so had drawn up the matter, to leave upon the 
Board before them. Which is as follows. 

* Sir Edmund Andros. 


*: c To the honoured Governor and Council of the 


" Whereas by virtue of yours, with Plym 
outh s desires and commands, I went Eastward in 
the last expedition against the common Indian 
enemy, where Providence so ordered that we at 
tacked their greatest body of forces, coming then 
for the destruction of Falmouth, which we know 
marched off repulsed with considerable damage, 
Jeaving the ground, and have never since been 
seen there, or in any place adjacent. The time 
of the year being then too late to prosecute any 
further design, and other accidents falling out 
contrary to my expectation, impeded the desired 
success. Upon my then removal from the prov 
ince of Maine, the inhabitants were very solicit 
ous that this enemy might be further prosecuted, 
willing to venture their lives and fortunes in the 
said enterprise, wherein they might serve God, 
their King, and country, and enjoy quiet and 
peaceable habitations. Upon which I promised 
to signify the same to yourselves, and willing to 
venture that little which Providence hath betrust- 
ed me with, on the said account. The season of 
the year being such, if some speedy action be not 
performed in attacking them, they will certainly 
be upon us in our out-towns, God knows where, 
and the inhabitants there, not being able to defend 
themselves, without doubt many souls will be cut 
off, as our last year s experience wofully hath de 
clared. The inhabitants there trust to your pro 
tection, having undertaken government and your 
propriety; if nothing be performed on the said ac- 


count, the best way, under correction, is to demol 
ish the garrison, and draw off the inhabitants, that 
they may not be left to a merciless enemy; and 
that the arms and ammunition may not be there 
for the strengthening of the enemy, who without 
doubt have need enough, having exhausted their 
greatest store in this winter season. I have per 
formed my promise to them, and acquitted myself 
in specifying the same to yourselves. Not that I 
desire to be in any action, although willing to 
serve my King and country, and may pass under 
the censure of scandalous tongues in the last ex 
pedition, which I hope they will amend on the first 
opportunity of service. I leare to mature consid 
eration, the loss of trade and fishery; the war 
brought to the doors. What a triumph it will be 
to the enemy, derision to our neighbours, besides 
dishonour to God and our nation, and grounds of 
frowns from our Prince, the frustration of those 
whose eyes are upon you for help; who might have 
otherwise applied themselves to their King. Gen 
tlemen, this I thought humbly to propose unto you, 
that I might discharge myself in my trust from 
yourselves, and promise to the inhabitants of the 
province, but especially my duty to God, her 
Majesty, and my nation, praying for your honours 
prosperity, subscribe, 

" Your servant, 

" A true copy given in at Boston, this 
6th of February, 1689, at the Coun 
cil Board. Attest. T, S." 


Major Church said, moreover, that in thus do 
ing he had complied with his promise to those 
poor people of Casco, and should be acquitted 
from the guilt of their blood* The Governor was 
pleased to thank him for his care and pains taken, 
then taking his leave of them went home, and left 
Captain Scottavvay in a very sorrowful condition, 
who returned home sometime after with only a 
copy of what was left on the board by the said 
Church. Maj. Church not hearing any thing till 
May following, and then was informed, that those 
poor people of Casco were cut off by the barba 
rous enemy; and that although they made their 
terms with Monsieur Casteen, who was com 
mander of those enemies, yet he suffered those 
merciless savages to massacre and destroy the 
most of them. To conclude this first expedition 
East, I shall just give you a hint how Major 
Church was treated, although he was Commander 
in Chief of all the forces out of Plymouth and 
Boston government* After he came home, Plym 
outh gentlemen paid him but forty-two pounds; 
telling him, he must go to Boston Gentlemen for 
the rest, who were his employers as well as they. 
Of whom he never had one penny, for all travel 
and expenses in raising volunteers, and services 
done; except forty shillings or thereabout, for 
going from Boston to Rhode-Island on their bu 
siness, and back to Boston again; also for send 
ing a man to Providence, after Captain Edmunds, 
who raised a company in those parts, and went 
East with them. 



IN the year 1690 was the expedition to Cana 
da, and Major W alley* often requested Major 
Church that if he would not go himself in that 
expedition, that he would not hinder others. He 
told the said Walley, that he should hinder none 
but his old soldiers, that used to go along with 
him. And the said Church going down to 
Charlestown, to take his leave of some of his re 
lations and friends, who were going into that ex 
pedition, promised his wife and family, not to go 
into Boston, the small-pox being very rife there. 
Coming to Charlestown, several of his friends in 
Boston came over to see him; and the next day 
after the said Church came there, Major Walley 
came to him, and informed him, that the Gover 
nor and Council wanted to speak with him. He 
told him, that he had promised his wife and fami 
ly not to go into Boston; saying, if they had any 
business, they could write to him, and that he 
would send them his answer. Soon after came 
over two other gentlemen with a message, that 
the Governor and Council wanted to have some 
discourse with him. The answer returned was, 
that he intended to lodge that night at the Gray- 
hound in Roxbury, and that in the morning would 

* Major John Walley had the command of the land forces 
in this expedition to Canada, under the direction of Sir 
William Phipps. They took Port Royal without much op 
position, but were obliged to retire from Quebeck with loss 
On their return to Boston the government had made no 
preparation for paying the men, relying on plunder to defray 
the expense; bills of credit, therefore, w r ere resorted to, 
which were the first ever used in this country. 


come to Pollard s at the south end of Boston; 
which accordingly he did. Soon after he came 
thither, he received a letler from the honorable 
Captain Sewall, to request him to come to the 
Council. The answer he returned by the bearer 
was, that he thought there was no need of his 
hazarding himself so much as to come and speak 
with them; not that he was afraid of his life, but 
because he had no mind to be concerned; and fur 
ther, because they would not hearken to him 
about the poor people of Casco. But immediate 
ly came Mr. Maxfield to him, saying, that the 
Council bid him tell the said Church, that if he 
would take his horse and ride along the middle of 
the street, there might be no danger, they were 
then sitting in Council. He bid them go and 
tell his masters, not to trouble themselves, wheth 
er he came upon his head or feet, he was coming. 
However, thinking the return was something 
rude, called him back to drink a glass of wine, 
and then went along with him. So coming to 
the Council, they were very thankful to him for 
his corning; and told him that the occasion of 
their sending for him was, that there was a cap 
tive come in, who gave them an account, that the 
Indians were come down, and had taken posses 
sion of the stone fort at Pejepscot, so that they 
wanted his advice and thoughts about the matter, 
whether they would tarry and keep in the fort 
or not; and whether it was not expedient to 
send some forces to do some spoil upon them; and 
further to know whether he could not be prevail 
ed with to raise some volunteers and go and do 
some spoil upon them. He answered them, he 
was unwilling to be concerned any more; it being 


very difficult and chargeable to raise volunteers, 
as he found by experience in the last expedition. 
But they using many arguments prevailed so far 
with him, he said, that if the Government of 
Plymouth saw cause to send him, he would go, 
thinking the expedition would be short; so he 
took his leave of them and went home. And in 
a short time after, there came an express from 
Governor Hinkley, to request Major Church to 
come to Barnstable to him. He having received 
a letter from the Government of Boston to raise 
some forces to go East. Whereupon the ^ said 
Major Church went the next day to Barnstable, 
as ordered; finding the Governor and some of the 
Council of War there. They discoursed with 
him, and concluded that he should take his Indian 
soldiers, and two English Captains, with what 
volunteers could be raised; and that one Captain 
should go out of Plymouth and Barnstable coun 
ty, and the other out of Bristol county, with what 
forces he could raise, concluding to have but few 
officers, to save charge. The said Church was 
at great charge and expense in raising forces. 
Governor Hinkley promised that he would take 
care to provide vessels to transport the said army 
with ammunition and provisions, by the time pre 
fixed by himself; for the Government of Boston 
had obliged themselves by their letter, to provide 
any thing that was wanting. So at the time pre 
fixed Major Church marched down all his soldiers 
out of Bristol County to Plymouth, as ordered; 
and being come, found it not as he expected, for 
there were neither provisions, ammunition nor 
transports; so he immediately sent an express to 
the Governor who was at Barnstable, to give him 


an account that he with the men were come to 
Plymouth, and found nothing ready. In his re 
turn to the said Church, gave him an account of 
his disappointments; and sent John Lathrop of 
Barnstable in a vessel with some ammunition and 
provision to him, at Plymouth; also sent him 
word that there were more on board of Samuel 
Ailing, of Barnstable, who was to go as a trans 
port, and that he himself would be at Plymouth 
next day; but Ailing never came near him, but 
we.nt to Billings-gate, at Cape Cod, as he was in 
formed. The Governor being come, told Major 
Church, that he must take some of the open 
sloops, and make spar decks to them, and lay 
platforms for the soldiers to lie upon. These de 
lays were very expensive to the said Church. 
His soldiers being all volunteers, daily expected 
to be treated by him, and the Indians always beg 
ging for money to get drink. But he using his 
utmost diligence, made what despatch he could to 
be gone, being ready to embark, received his 
commission and instructions from Governor Hink- 
ley, which are as followeth, viz. 

" The Council of War of their Majesties Colony 
of New Plymouth, in New-England, to Major 
Benjamin Church, Commander in Chief, ,c. 

"WHEREAS the Kennebeck and Eastward In 
dians, with the French their confederates, have 
openly made war upon their Majesties subjects of 
the Provinces of Maine, New-Hampshire, ^ud of 
the Massachusetts Colony, having committed 
many barbarous murders, spoils and rapines upon 
their persons and estates. And whereas there are 
some forces of soldiers, English and Indians, now 


raised and detached out of the severel regiments 
and places within this Colony of New-Plymouth, 
to go forth to the assistance of our neighbours 
and friends of the aforesaid provinces and colony 
of the Massachusetts, subjects of one and the 
same crown. And whereas you, Benjamin 
Church, are appointed to be Major and Com 
mander in Chief of all the forces, English and In 
dians, attached within this colony, together with 
such other of their Majesties 9 subjects as elsewhere 
shall enlist themselves, or shall be orderly put under 
your command for the service of their Majesties, 
as aforesaid. These are in their Majesties names 
to authorise and require you to take into your 
care and conduct all the said forces, English and 
Indians, and diligently to intend that service, by 
leading and exercising your inferior officers and 
soldiers, commanding them to obey you as their 
chief Commander. And to pursue, fight, take, 
kill or destroy the said enemies, their aiders and 
abetters by all the ways and means you can, as 
you shall have opportunity, and to accept to mer 
cy* or grant quarter and favor to such, or so many 
of said enemies as you shall find needful for pro 
moting the design aforesaid. And you are to ob 
serve and obey ail such orders and instructions, as 
from time to time you shall receive from the Com 
missioners of the colonies, or the Council of War 
of the said colony of New-Plymouth, or from the 
Governor and C^mncil of the Massachusetts. In. 
testimony whereof is affixed the public seal of this 
colony. Dated in Plymouth the second day of 
September, Anno Dom. 1690, Jlnnoqiie Itcgni 
Regis et Reginw Willielmi et Maria, fyc. tie- 
cundQ. TUG. HINKLEY, Pres" 


Instructions for Major Benjamin Church, Com 
mander in Chief of the Plymouth forces, with 
other of the Massachusetts put under his com 

" IN pursuance of the commission given you 
for their Majesties service, in the present expe 
dition against the common enemy, Indian and 
French, their aiders and abetters, on the request 
of our brethren and friends of the Massachusetts 
colony, subjects of one and the same crown of 
England; for our assistance of them therein. 
Reposing confidence in your wisdom, prudence, 
proneness and faithfulness in the trust under God 
committed to you for the honour of his name, the 
interest of Christ in these churches, and the good 
of the whole people, praying and expecting that 
in your dependance on him, you may be helped 
and assisted with all that grace, wisdom and cour 
age necessary for the carrying of you on with sue- : 
cess in this difficult service; and though much is 
and must be left to your discretion, with your Coun 
cil of Officers, as Providence and opportunity may 
present from time to time in places of action; 
yet the following instructions are commended to 
you to be observed and attended to by you, so 
far as the state and circumstances of that affair 
will admit. 

" You are with all possible speed to take care 
that the Plymouth forces, both English and In 
dians, under your command, be fixed and ready 
on the first opportunity of wind and weather, to 
go on board such vessels, as are provided to trans 
port you to Piscataqua; and there to take under 
your care and command such companies of the 

150 WAR WITH Tll. 

Massachusetts colony, as shall by them be order 
ed and added to you there, or elsewhere from time 
to time; all which you are lo improve in such 
way, and from place to place, as with the advice 
of your Council, consisting of the Commissioned 
Officers of the Massachusetts colony, and Ply 
mouth, under your conduct, shall seem meet, for 
the finding out, pursuing, taking or destroying of 
the said common enemy, on all opportunities, ac 
cording to commission, and such further orders 
and instructions as you have or may receive from 
the Governor and Council of the Massachusetts, 
the Commissioners for the United Colonies, or 
the Governor and Council of Plymouth; so far 
as you may be capable, intending what you can 
the preserving of the near towns from the incur 
sions and destructions of the enemy; but chiefly 
tp intend the finding out, pursuing, taking and de- 
s|roying the enemy abroad, and if possible to at- 
Jack them in their head quarters and principal 
Rendezvous, if you are in a rational capacity of so 
doing; and for the better enabling you thereunto, 
we have appointed the vessels that transport you, 
and the provisions, &LC. to attend your motion and 
order until you shall see cause to dismiss them, 
or any of them, which is desired to be done the 
first opportunity the service will admit. You are 
to see that your soldiers 5 arms be always fixed, 
and they provided with ammunition, and other ne 
cessaries, that they may be always ready to repel 
and attack the enemy. You are to take special 
eare to avoid danger in the pursuit of the enemy, 
"by keeping out scouts, and a forlorn, to prevent 
the ambushmoiits of the enemy on your main body 
in their inarches. And by all possible means to 


surprise some of the enemy, that so you may gain 
better intelligence. 

" You are to take effectual care that the wor 
ship of God be kept up in the army, that morning 
and evening prayer be attended, and the Holy 
Sabbath duly sanctified, as the emergency of your 
affairs will admit. 

" You are to take strict care to prevent or 
punish drunkenness, cursing, swearing, and all oth 
er vices, lest the anger of God be hereby provok 
ed to fight against you. You are, from time to 
time, to give intelligence and advice to the Gov 
ernor of the Massachusetts, and to us, of your 
proceedings and occurrences that may attend you. 
And in case of a failure of any commissioned offi 
cers, you are to appoint others in their stead. 
And when, with the advice of your Council afore 
said, you shall, after some trial, see your service 
not like to be advantageous to the accomplishment 
of the public end aforesaid; that then you return 
home with the forces; especially if you shall re 
ceive any orders or directions so to do from the 
Massachusetts, or from us. Given under my 
hand, at Plymouth, the 2d of September, Anno 
Domini 1690. 

THOMAS HINKLEY, Gov. and Pres" 

Now having a fair wind Maj. Church soon got 
to Piscataqua, who was to apply himself to Maj. 
Pike, a worthy gentleman, who said, he had ad 
vice of his coming from Boston gentlemen; also 
he had received directions that what men the said 
Church should want must be raised out of Hamp 
shire from the several towns and garrisons. Maj. 
Pike asked him, how many men he should want? 


he said enough to make up his forces that he 
brought with him, three hundred at least, and not 
more than three hundred and fifty. And so in 
about nine days time he was supplyed with two 
companies of soldiers. He having been at about 
twenty shillings a day charge in expences while 
there. Now he received Maj. Pike s instructions, 
which are as followeth: 

"Portsmouth, JV. //. Sept. 9, 1690. 
"To Major Benj. Church, Commander in Chief 
of their Majesties forces now designed upon 
the present expedition Eastward, and now resi 
dent at Portsmouth. 

4 The Governor and Council of the Massa 
chusetts Colony reposing great trust and confi 
dence in your loyalty and valour, from experience 
of your former actions, and of God s presence 
with you in the same, in pursuance of an order, 
received from them, commanding it; These are, 
in their Majesties names, to empower and require 
you as Commander in Chief, to take into your 
care and conduct these forces now here present 
at their rendezvous at Portsmouth; and they are 
alike required to obey you. And with them to 
sail Eastward by the first opportunity to Casco, 
or places adjacent, that may be most commodious 
for landing with safety and secresy. And to visit 
the French and Indians at their head-quarters at 
Ameras-cogen, Pejepscot, or any other place, ac 
cording as you may have hope or intelligence of 
the residence of the enemy; using always your 
utmost endeavour for the preservation of your own 
men, and the killing, destroying, and utterly root 
ing out of the enemy, wheresoevei they may be 


ibund; and also as much as may possibly be done 
for the redeeming or recovering of our captives in 
any places. 

" You being there arrived, and understanding 
your way, to take your journey back again either 
by land or water, as you shall judge most conven 
ient for the accomplishing of the end intended \ 
and to give intelligence always of your motions 
whensoever you can with safety and convenience. 

Lastly, In all to consult your council, the com 
manders or commissioned officers of your several 
companies, when it may be obtained, the greater 
part of whom to determine. And so the Lord of 
hosts, the God of armies, go along with you, and 
be your conductor. Given under my hand the 
day and year above said. 


Being ready, they took the first opportunity, 
and made the best of their way to Pejepscot fort, 
where they found nothing. From thence they 
marched to Ameras-cogen.* And when they 
came near the fort, Maj. Church made a halt, or 
dering the Captains to draw out of their several 
companies sixty of their meanest men, to be a 
guard to the Doctor and knapsacks, being not a 
mile from said fort; and then moving towards the 
fort, they saw young Doney and his wife, with 
two English captives. The said Doney made his 
escape to the fort : his wife was shot down, and so 
the poor captives were released out of their bon- 

* A fine river of New-Hampshire, which flows eastward, 
and after entering Maine, falls into the Kennebeck. There 
are different ways of writing this word; as, Ameriscoggen, 
Androscoggin, Amoscoggan, &.c. but it is generally pro 
nounced in New-Hampshire, Amrascoggin. 


dage. Maj. Church and Capt. Walton made no 
stop, making the best of their way to the fort, 
with some of the army, in hopes of getting to the 
fort before young Doney; but the river, through 
which they must pass, was as deep as their arm 
pits; however Maj. Church, as soon as he had 
got over, stripped to his shirt and jacket, leaving 
his breeches behind, ran directly to the fort, hav 
ing an eye to see if young Doney, who ran on the 
other side of the river, should get there before him. 
The wind now blowing very hard in their faces, 
as they ran, was some help to them; for several of 
our men fired guns, which they in the fort did not 
hear, so that we had taken all in the fort, had it 
not been for young Doney, who got to the fort 
just before we did, who ran into the south gate, 
and out at the north, all the men following him, 
except one, and all ran directly down to the great 
river and falls.* The said Church, and his forces, 
being come pretty near, he ordered Capt. Walton 
to run directly, with some forces, into the fort, 
and himself, with the rest, ran down to the river 
after the enemy, who ran some of them into the 
river, and the rest under the great falls. Those 
who ran into the river were killed, for he saw but 
one man get over, and he only crept up the bank, 
and there lay in open sight. Those that run under 
the falls they made no discovery of, notwithstand 
ing several of his men went in under the said falls, 
and were gone some conquerable time, could not 
fiiid them. So leaving a watch there, returned 
to the fort, where he found but one man taken, 
and several women and children, among whom 

* A beautiful fall in the Amrascoggin. 


were Capt. Hakins and Worumbos wives and 
children. Worumbos was Sachem of that fort. 
Hakins was Sachem of Pennacook, who destroy 
ed Maj. Walden* and his family, some time be 
fore. The said two women, viz. Hakins and 
Worumbos wives, requested the said Church that 
he would spare them and their children s lives, 
promising, upon that condition, he should have all 
the captives that were taken, and in the Indians 
hands. He asked them, how many? they said, 
about fourscore. So upon that condition, he 
promised them their lives. And in the said fort 
there were several English captives, who were in 
a miserable condition. Among them was Capt. 
Huckings wife, of Oyster-river. f Maj. Church 
proceeded to examine the man taken, who gave 
him an account that most of the fighting men were 
gone to Winter-harbour, to provide provisions for 
the Bay of Fundy Indians, who were to come and 
join with them to fight the English. The soldiers 
being very rude, would hardly spare the Indian s 

* Waldron. This gentleman and his family, on the night 
of 27th of June, 1689, were all massacreed. 13 years be 
fore, Maj. Waldron had surprised by stratagem, about 200 
Indians, who had at times been troublesome. Revenge re 
mained in the breasts of the tribes above mentioned, till 
that fatal night. When this affair took place, the Major 
was 80 years old, yet, he made a gallant defence, at length 
overpowered by numbers, was taken and cut in pieces. 
In this affair fifty-two persons were killed and made cap 
tives. The plan of the Indians to enter the Major s garri 
son, was artful. Some squaws pretending illness, were 
permitted to lodge within, when all were asleep, they arose, 
unlocked the gates and the foes entered. Major Waldron 
lived in Dover, N. H. which is about ten miles N. W. of 

f Formerly Dover was so called. JV. H, Gaz. 


life, while in examination, intending when he had 
done that he should be executed. But Capt. 
Huckings wife, and another woman fell on their 
knees and begged for him, saying that he had 
been the means of saving their lives, and a great 
many more; and had helped several to opportuni 
ties to make their escape; and that never, since 
he came among them, had fought against the Eng 
lish, but being related to Hakins 5 wife, kept at 
the fort with them, he having been there two 
years; but his living was to the westward of Bos 
ton; so, upon their request, his life was spared. 
Next day the said Church ordered that all their 
corn should be destroyed, being a great quantity, 
saving a little for the two old squaws which he 
designed to leave at the fort, to give an account 
who he was and from whence he came; the rest 
being knocked on the head, except the aforemen 
tioned, for an example. He ordered them all to 
be buried. Having inquired where all their best 
beaver were, they said they were carried away to 
make a present to the Bay of Fundy Indiand, who 
were coming to their assistance. 

Now being ready to draw off from thence, he 
called the two old squaws to him, and gave each 
of them a kettle and some biscuit, bidding them 
to tell the Indians when they came home, that 
he was known by the name of Capt. Church, 
and lived in the westerly part of Plymouth gov 
ernment, and that those Indians that came with 
him were formerly King Philip s men, and that 
he had met with them in Philip s war, and drawn 
them off from him, to fight for the English, against 
the said Philip and his associates, who then prom 
ised him to fight for the English as long as they 


15 r 

had one enemy left; and said, that they did not 
question but before Indian corn was ripe to have 
Philip s head, notwithstanding he had twice as 
many men as were in their country; and that they 
had killed and taken one thousand three hundred 
and odd of Philip s men, women and children, and , 
Philip himself, with several other Sachems; and 
that they should tell Hakins and Worumbos, that 
if they had a mind to see their wives and children 
they should come to Wells garrison, and that 
there they might hear of them, SLC. Major 
Church having done, moved with all his forces 
down to Mequait, where the transports were, but 
in the way some of his soldiers threatened the In 
dian man prisoner very much, so that in a thick 
swamp he gave them the slip and got away, and 
when they all got on board the transports, the 
wind being fair, made the best of their way for 
Winter harbour. And the next morning before 
day, or as soon as the day appeared, they discov 
ered some smokes rising towards Skaman s garri 
son. He immediately sent away a scout of 60 
men, and followed presently with the whole body; 
the scout coming near a river, discovered the 
enemy to be on the other side of it. But three 
of the enemy were come over to the same side of 
the river which the scout was on. They ran hast 
ily down to their canoe, one of which lay at each 
end of it, and the third stood up to paddle them 
over. The scout fired at them, and he that pad 
dled fell down upon the canoe, and broke it in 
pieces, so that all three perished. The firing put 
the enemy to the rout, who left their canoes and 
provisions to our men. Old Doney, and one 
Thomas Baker, an Englishman, who was a pris- 


oner among them, were up at the falls, ?md heard 
the guns, expected the other Indians had come to 
their assistance, so they came down the river in a 
canoe; but when they perceived that there were 
English as well as Indicins, old Doney ran the 
canoe ashore, and ran over Baker s head and fol 
lowed the rest, and then Baker came to us. He 
gave an account of the beaver hid at Pejepscot 
plain. Coming to the place where the plunder 
was, the Major sent a scout to Pejepscot fort, 
to see if they could make any discovery of the en 
emy s tracks, or could discover any coming up the 
river, who returned and said they saw nothing 
but our old tracks at the fort. 

Now having got some plunder, one of the Cap 
tains said it was time to go home, and several 
others were of the same mind; the Major being 
much disturbed at the motion, expecting the ene 
my would come, in a very short time, where they 
might have a great advantage of them, &,c. Not 
withstanding all he could say or do, he was obliged 
to call a council, according to his instructions, 
wherein he was out-voted. The said Commander 
seeing he was put by of his intentions, proffered 
if sixty men would stay with him, he would not 
embark as yet; but all he could say or do could 
not prevail. Then they moved to the vessels and 
embarked. As they were going in the vessels, 
on the back side of Mayr-point, they discovered 
eight or nine canoes, who turned short about, and 
went up the river; being the same Indians that 
the Major expected, and would have waited for. 
The aforesaid Captain being much disturbed at 
what the Major had said to him, drew off from 
the fleet, and in the night ran aground. In the 


morning, Anthony Bracket, having been advised 
and directed by the Indian that had made his es 
cape from our forces, came down near where the 
aforesaid vessel lay aground, and got aboard, who 
proved a good pilot, and Captain for his country. 
The next day being very calm and misty, so that 
they were all day getting down from Mequait to 
Perpodack; and the masters of the vessels think 
ing it not safe putting out in the night, so late in 
the year, anchored there. The vessels being 
much crowded, the Major ordered that three com 
panies should go on shore, and no more, himself 
with Capt. Converse went with them to order their 
lodging, and find houses convenient for them, viz. 
two barns and one house; so seeing them all set 
tled and their watches out, the Major and Capt. 
Converse returned to go on board, and coming 
near where Jflje boat was, it was pretty dark, they 
discovered v^rne men, but did not know what or 
who they were. The Major ordered those that 
were with him all to clap down and cock, 
their guns. He called out and asked them who 
they were? They said Indians. He asked them 
whose men they were. They said, Capt. South- 
worth s. He asked them where they intended to 
lodge? They said, in those little huts that the en 
emy had made when they took that garrison. The 
Major told them they must not make any fires; 
for if they did, the enemy would be upon them 
before day. They laughed, and said, " our Major 
is afraid." Having given them their directions, he, 
with Capt. Converse, went on board the Mary 
sloop; designing to write home, and send away 
in the morning, the two sloops which had the 
small-pox on board, &,e. But before day our In- 



(Hans began to make fires, and sing and dance. 
The Major called to Capt. Southworth to go 
ashore and look after his men, for the enemy 
would be upon them by and by. He ordered the 
boat to be hauled up to carry him ashore, and 
called Capt. Converse to go with him. And just 
as the day began to appear, as the Major was get 
ting into the boat to go ashore, the enemy fired 
upon our men. The Indians, notwithstanding 
that one Philip, an Indian of ours, who was out 
upon the watch, heard a man cough, and the sticks 
crack, and gave the rest an account, that he saw 
Indians; yet they would not believe; but said to 
him, "You are afraid;" his answer was, that they 
might see them come creeping. They laughed, 
and said, they were hogs. Ay, said he, and they 
will bite you by and by. So presently they did fire 
upon our men; but the morning being: misty, their 
guns did not go off quick, so that oui -)ien had all 
time to fall down before their guns went off, and 
saved themselves from that volley, except one 
man, who was killed. 

This sudden firing upon our Indian soldiers 
so surprised them, that they left their arms, but 
soon recovered them again, and got down the 
bank, which was but low. The Major, with all 
the forces on board, landed as fast as they could, 
the enemy firing smartly at them; however all 
got safe ashore. The enemy had a great advan 
tage of our forces, who were between the sunris- 
ing and the enemy, so that if a man put up his 
head or hand they could see it, and would fire at 
it: However, some, with the Major, got up the 
bank behind stumps and rocks, to have the advan 
tage of firing at the enemy; but when the sun was 


risen the Major slipped down the bank again, 
where all the forces were ordered to observe his 
motion, viz. that he would give three shouts, and 
then all of them should run with him up the bank. 
So, when he had given the third shout, ran up 
the bank, and Capt. Converse with him, but when 
the said Converse perceived that the forces did 
not follow as commanded, called to the Major, 
and told him the forces did not follow, who, not 
withstanding the enemy fired smartly at him, got 
safe down the bank again, and rallying the forces 
up the bank, soon put the enemy to flight. They 
followed them so close, that they took 13 canoes, 
and one lusty man, who had Joseph RamsdePs 
scalp by his side, who was taken by two of our 
Indians, and having his deserts was himself scalp 
ed. This being a short and smart fight, some of 
our men were killed and several wounded. Some 
time after, an Englishman, who was prisoner 
among them, gave an account that our forces had 
killed and wounded several of the enemy, for they 
killed several prisoners according to custom, &,c. 
After this action was over our forces embarked 
for Piscataqua. The Major went to Wells, and 
removed the Captain there, and put in Capt. An- 
dros, who had been with him and knew the condi 
tions ]eft with the two old squaws at Ameras-co- 
gen, for Hakins and Worumbos to come there in 
fourteen days, if they had a mind to hear of their 
wives and children. They did soon after come 
with a flag of truce to said Wells garrison, and 
had leave to come in; and more appearing came 
in, to the number of eight, without any terms, be 
ing all Chief Sachems; and were very glad to 
hear of the women and children, viz. Hakins and 


Worumbos wives and children; who all said 
three several times that they would never fight 
against the English any more, for the French 
made fools of them. They saying as they did, 
the said Andros let them go. Maj. Church hav 
ing come to Piscataqua, and two of his transports 
having the small-pox on board, and several of his 
men having got great colds by their hard service, 
pretended they were going to have the small-pox, 
thinking by that means to be sent home speedily. 
The Major being willing to try them, went to the 
gentlemen there, and desired them to provide a 
house, for some of his men expected they should 
have the small-pox; who readily did, and told him, 
that the people belonging to it were just recover 
ed of the small-pox, and had been all at meeting, 
&,c. The Major returning to his Officers order 
ed them to draw out all their men that were going 
to have the small-pox, for he had provided an hos 
pital for them. So they drew out 17 men, that 
bad, as they said, all the symptoms of the small 
pox; he ordered them all to follow him, and com 
ing to the house, he asked them how they liked 
it? . They said very well. Then he told them that 
the people in the said house had all had the small 
pox, and were recovered; .and that if they went 
in they must not come out till they all had it. 
Whereupon they all presently began to grow bet 
ter, and to make excuses, except one man who 
desired to stay out till night, before he went in. 
The Major went to the gentlemen, told them, 
that one thing more would work a perfect cure 
upon his men; which was to let them go home. 
Which did work a cure upon all, except one, and 
4ie had not the small-pox. So he ordered the 


plunder should be divided forthwith, and sent away 
all the Plymouth forces. But the gentlemen there 
desired him to stay, and they would be assisting 
to him in raising new forces, to the number of 
what was sent away; and that they would send to 
Boston for provisions; which they did, and sent 
Capt. Plaisted to the Governor and Council at 
Boston. And in the mean time the Major with 
those gentlemen went into all those parts and rais 
ed a sufficient number of men, both Officers and 
soldiers; who all met at the bank on the same day 
that Capt. Plaisted returned from Boston; whose 
return from the Boston gentlemen was, that the 
Canada expedition had drained them so that they 
could do no more. vSo that Maj. Church, not 
withstanding he had been at considerable expenses 
in raising said forces to serve his King and coun 
try, was obliged to give them a treat and dismiss 
them. Taking his leave of them came home to 
Boston, in the Mary sloop, Mr. Alden master, 
and Capt. Converse with him, on a Saturday; and 
waiting upon the Governor and some of the men 
of Boston, they looked very strange upon them, 
which not only troubled them, but put them in 
some consternation what the matter should be, that 
after so much toil and hard service could not have 
so much as one pleasant word, nor any money in 
their pockets; for Maj. Church had but eight 
pence left, and Capt. Converse none, as he said 
afterwards. Maj. Church seeing two gentlemen 
which he knew had money, asked them to lend 
him forty shillings, telling them his necessity. 
Yet they refused. So being bare of money was 
obliged to lodge at Mr. Alden s three nights. 
The next Tuesday morning Capt. Converse came 


to him, they not knowing each other s circumstan 
ces as yet, and said he would walk with him out 
of town. So coming near Pollard s at the south 
end, they had some discourse; thought that it was 
very hard that they should part with dry lips. 
Maj. Church told Capt. Converse that he had but 
eight pence left, and could not borrow any money 
to carry him home. And the said Converse said, 
that he had not a penny left, so they were oblig 
ed to part without going to Pollard s. The said 
Capt. Converse returned back into town, and the 
said Church went over to Roxbury. At the tav 
ern he met with Stephen Braton, of Rhode-Isl 
and, a drover, who w r as glad to see him, and he 
as glad to see his neighbour. Whereupon Maj. 
Church called for an eight-penny tankard of drink, 
and let the said Braton know his circumstances, 
asked him whether he would lend him forty shill 
ings? He answered, " Yes, forty pounds, if you 
want it." So he thanked him, and said, he would 
have but forty shillings, which he freely lent him. 
And presently after Mr. Church was told that his 
brother Caleb Church, of Watertown,was coming 
with a spare horse for him, having heard the night 
before that his brother was come in; by which 
means the said Maj. Church got home. And for 
all his travel and expenses in raising soldiers, and 
service done, never had but fourteen pounds of 
Plymouth gentlemen, and not a p nny of Boston, 
notwithstanding he had worn out all his clothes, 
and run himself in debt, so that he was obliged to 
sell half a share of land in Tiverton, for about 
sixty pounds, which is now worth three hundred 
pounds more arid above what he had. 


Having not been at home long before he found 
out the reason why Boston gentlemen looked so 
disaffected on him; as you may see by the sequel 
of two letters Maj. Church sent to the gentlemen 
in the Eastward parts; which are as folio weth. 

"Bristol, November 27, 1690. 

" According to my promise when with 
you last, I waited upon the Governor at Boston 
on Saturday, Capt. Converse being with me. 
The Governor informed us that the Council were 
to meet on the Monday following in the afternoon, 
at which time we both there waited upon them, 
and gave them an account of the state of your 
country, and great necessities. They informed 
us, that their General Court was to convene the 
Wednesday following, at which time they would 
debate and consider of the matter. Myself being 
bound home, Capt. Converse was ordered to wait 
upon them, and bring you their resolves. I then 
took notice of the Council that they looked upon 
me with an ill aspect, not judging me worthy to 
receive thanks for the service I had done in your 
parts; nor as much as asked me whether I wanted 
money to bear my expences, or a horse to carry 
me home. But I was forced, for want of money, 
being far from friends, to go to Roxbury on foot; 
but meeting there with a Rhode-Island gentleman, 
acquainted him of my wants, who tendered me 
ten pounds, whereby I was accommodated for my 
journey home. And being come home, I went to 
the minister of our town, and gave him an account 
of the transactions of the great affairs I had been 
employed in, and the great favour God was pleas- 


ed to show me, and my company, and the benefit 
I hoped would accrue to yourselves; and desired 
him to return publick thanks; but at the same in 
terim of time a paper was presented unto him from 
a Court of Plymouth, which was holden before I 
came home, to command a day of humiliation 
through the whole government, because of the 
frown of God upon those forces sent under my 
command, and the ill success we had, for want of 
good conduct. All which was caused by those 
false reports which were posted home by those ill 
affected Officers that were under my conduct; es 
pecially one, which yourselves very well know, 
who had the advantage of being at home a week 
before me, being sick of action, and wanting the 
advantage to be at the bank, which he was every 
day mindful of more than fighting the enemy in 
their own country. 

" After I came home, being informed of a Gen 
eral Court at Plymouth, and not forgetting my 
faithful promise to you, and the duty I lay under, 
I went thither. Where waiting upon them, I 
gave them an account of my Eastward transac 
tions, and made them sensible of the falseness of 
those reports that were posted to them by ill hands, 
and found some small favourable acceptance with 
them; so far that I was credited. I presented 
your thanks to them for their seasonably sending 
those forces to relieve you, of the expense and 
charge they had been at; which thanks they grate 
fully received; and said a few lines from your 
selves would have been well accepted. I then 
gave them an account of your great necessities, 
by being imprisoned in your garrisons, and the 
great mischief that would attend the public con- 


cerns of this country by the loss of their Majes 
ties interest, and so much good estate of yours 
and your neighbours, as doubtless would be, on 
the deserting of your town. I then moved for a 
free contribution for your relief, which they with 
great forwardness promoted; and then ordered a 
day of thanksgiving through the government upon 
the twenty-sixth day of this instant. Upon which 
day a collection was ordered for your relief, and 
the places near adjacent, in every respective town 
in this government; and for the good management 
of it that it might be safely conveyed unto your 
hands, they appointed a man in each county for 
the receipt and conveyance thereof. The persons 
nominated and accepted thereof, are, for the 
county of Plymouth, Capt. Nathaniel Thomas, of 
Marshfield; for the county of Barnstable, Capt. 
Joseph Lathrop, of Barnstable ; and for the 
county of Bristol, myself. Which when gathered, 
you will have a particular account from each per 
son, with orders of advice how it may be disposed 
of for your best advantage, with a copy of the 
Court s order. The gentlemen the effects are to 
be sent to, are yourselves that I now write to, 
viz. John Wheelwright, Esq. Capt. John Little- 
field, and Lieut. Joseph Story. I deferred writ 
ing, expecting every day to hear from you con 
cerning the Indians, coming to treat about their 
prisoners that we had taken. The discourse I 
made with them at Ameras-cogen, I knew would 
have that effect as to bring them to a treaty, which 
I would have thought myself happy to have been 
improved in, knowing that it would have made 
much for your good. But no intelligence coming 
to me from any gentlemen in your parts, and hear- 


ing nothing but by accident, and that in the latter 
end of the week by some of ours coming from Bos 
ton, informed me that the Indians had come into 
your town to seek for peace; and that there was 
to be a treaty speedily; but the time they knew 
not. I took my horse, and upon the Monday set 
out for Boston, expecting the treaty had been at 
your town, as rationally it should; but on Tues 
day night coming to Boston, I there met with 
Captain Elisha Andros, who informed me that 
the place of treaty was Sacaty-hock,* and that 
Capt. Alden was gone from Boston four days be 
fore I came there, and had carried all the Indian 
prisoners with him; and that all the forces were 
drawn away out of your parts, except twelve men 
in your town, and twelve in Piscataqua, which 
news did so amuse me, to see, that wisdom was 
taken from the wise, and such imprudence in 
their actions, as to be deluded by Indians. To 
have a treaty so far from any English town, and 
to draw off the forces upon what pretence soever, 
to me looks very ill. My fear i$ that they will 
deliver those we have taken, which, if kept, would 
have been greatly for your security, in keeping 
them in awe, and preventing them from doing any 
hostile action or mischief. I knowing that the 
English being abroad are very earnest to go home, 
and the Indians are very tedious in their discours 
es; and by that means will have an advantage to 
have their captives at very low rates, to your great 
damage. Gentlemen, as to Rhode-Island, I have 
not concerned myself as to any relief for you, 
having nothing in writing to show to them; yet, 

* Sagadehock. On the south side of Kennebeck river, 
twenty miles S. W. of Pemmaquid. HUBBARD. 


upon discourse with some gentlemen there, they 
have signified a great forwardness to promote such 
a thing. I lying under great reflections from 
some of yours in the Eastward parts, that I was 
a very covetuous person, and came there to en 
rich myself, and that I killed their cattle and bar 
relled them up, and sent them to Boston, and sold 
them for plunder, and made money to put into my 
own pocket; and the owners of them being poof 
people begged for the hides and tallow, with tears 
in their eyes; and that I was so cruel as to deny 
them! which makes me judge myself incapable to 
serve you in that matter ; yet, I do assure you, 
that the people are very charitable at the island, 
and forward in such good actions; and therefore, 
I advise you to desire some good substantial per 
son to take the management of it, and write to 
the government there, which I know will not be 
labour lost. As for what I am accused of, you 
all can witness to the contrary, and I should take 
it very kindly from you to do me that just right, 
as to vindicate my reputation; for the wise man 
says, " A good name is as precious ointment. ? * 
When I hear of the effects of the treaty, and have 
an account of this contribution, I intend again to 
write to you, being very desirous, and should think 
myself very happy, to be favoured with a few lines 
from yourself, or any gentleman in the Eastward 
parts. Thus leaving you to the protection and 
guidance of the great God of heaven arid earth, 
who is able to protect and supply you in your great 
difficulties, and to give you deliverance in his own 
due time. I remain, Gentlemen, your most as 
sured friend, to serve you to my utmost power. 


"Postscript. Esquire Wheelwright, Sir, I 
entreat you, after your, perusal of these lines, to 
communicate the same to Capt. John Littlefield, 
Lieut. Joseph Story, and to any other gentle 
men, as in your judgement you see fit. With the 
tenders of my respects to you, &c. and to Maj. 
Vaughan, and his good Lady and family. To 
Capt. Fryer and good Mrs. Fryer, with hearty 
thanks for their kindness whilst in those parts, 
and good entertainment from them. My kind 
respects to Maj. Frost, Capt. Walton, Lieut. 
Honeywel, and my very good friend little Lieut. 
Plaisted; with due respects to all gentlemen, my 
friends in the Eastward parts, as if particularly 
named. Farewell, B. C." 


"Bristol, November 21, 1690. 

"THESE come to wait upon you, to bring 
the tenders of my hearty service to yourself and 
lady, with due acknowledgment of thankfulness 
for all the kindness and favour I received from you 
in the Eastward parts, when with you. Since 
I came from those parts, I am informed, by Capt. 
Andros, that yourself and most all the forces are 
drawn off from the Eastward parts. I admire at 
it, considering that they had so low esteem of 
what was done, that they can apprehend the East 
ward parts so safe before the enemy were brought 
into better subjection. I was in hopes, when I 
came from ther.ce, that those who w r ere so desir 
ous to have my room would have been very brisk 
in my absence, to have gotten themselves some 
honour, which they very much gaped after, or eke 


they would not have spread so many false reports 
to defame me, which had I have known, before I 
left the bank, I would have had satisfaction of 
them. Your honour was pleased to give me some 
small account, before I left the bank, of some things 
that were ill represented to you, concerning the 
Eastward expedition, which being rolled home 
like a snow-ball through both colonies, were got to 
such a bigness that it overshadowed me from the 
influence of all comfort, or good acceptance among 
my friends in my journey homeward. But 
through God s goodness I am come home, finding- 
all well, and myself in good health, hoping that 
those reports will do me the favour, to quit me 
from all other public actions; that so I may the 
more peaceably and quietly wait upon God, and 
be a comfort to my own family, in this dark time 
of trouble; being as one hid, till his indignation is 
overpast. I shall take it as a great favour to hear 
of your welfare; subscribing myself, as I am, Sir, 
" Your most assured friend and servant, 

Maj. Church did receive, after this, answers to 
his letters, but hath lost them, except it be a let 
ter from several of those gentlemen in those parts, 
in June following, which is as followeth. 

"Portsmouth, June 29, 1691 

" YOUR former readiness to expose 
yourself in the service of the country, against the 
common enemy; and particularly the late obliga 
tions you have laid upon us, in these Eastern parts, 
leaves us under a deep and grateful sense for your 
fervour therein. And for as much as you were pleas- 


ed, when last here, to signify your ready inclina 
tion to further service of this kind, if occasion 
should call for it : We therefore presume confi 
dently to promise ourselves compliance according 
ly ; and have sent this messenger on purpose to 
you, to let you know, that notwithstanding the 
late overture of peace, the enemy have proved 
themselves as perfidious as ever, and are almost 
daily killing and destroying, upon all our frontiers. 
The Governor and Council of the Massachusetts 
have been pleased to order the raising of 150 men, 
to be forthwith despatched into those parts ; and, 
as we understand, have written to your Governor 
and Council of Plymouth for further assistance, 
which we pray you to promote, hoping if you can 
obtain about 200 men, English and Indians, to vi 
sit them at some of their head quarters, up Ken- 
riebeck river, or elsewhere, which, for want of 
necessaries, was omitted last year, it may be of 
great advantage to us. We offer nothing of ad 
vice as to what methods are most proper to be ta 
ken in this affair ; your acquaintance with our cir 
cumstances, as well as the enemy s, will direct 
you therein. We leave the conduct thereof to 
your own discretion ; but that the want of provi 
sion, &c. may be no remora to your motion, you 
may please to know Mr. Gealford, one of our 
principal inhabitants, now residing in Boston, hath 
promised to take care to supply, to the value of 
two or three hundred pounds, if occasion may re 
quire. We pray a few lines by the bearer to give 
us a prospect of what we may expect for our fur 
ther encouragement; and remain, 

" Sir, your obliged friends and servants, 
" Will. Vaughan, Richard Martyn, Nathaniel 


Fryer, William Fernald, Francis Hooke, Charles 
Frost, John Wincol, Robert Elliott." 

A true copy of the original letter ; which letter 
was presented to me by Captain Hatch, who came 

Major Church sent them his answer ; the con 
tents whereof were, that he had gone often enough 
for nothing ; and especially to be ill treated with 
scandals and false reports, when last out, which 
he could not forget. And signified to them, that 
doubtless some among them thought they could 
do without him, &,c. And to make short of it, 
did go out, and meeting with the enemy at Ma- 
quait, were most shamefully beaten, as I have 
been informed. 


THIS was in the year 1692. In the time of 
Sir William Phip s* government, Maj. Walley 

* Governor Phips " was a New-England man," born at 
Pernaquid, in 1650 ; being, as we are told, a younger son 
among twenty-six children, of whom twenty-one were sons. 
By profession he was a shipcarpenter. That business he 
soon left, and being an industrious and persevering man, 
soon acquired an education competent for the discharge of 
common affairs, and then went to sea. On hearing of a 
Spanish vessel s being wrecked near the Bahamas, proceeded 
to England, and gave so flattering an account of its value, 
and the practicability of obtainining it, that he was des 
patched in one of the King s ships in search of it ; but re 
turned without success. Soon after, the Duke of Albe- 
marl sent him with two ships on the same business, and he 
succeeded in bringing from the wreck three hundred thou 
sand pounds, of which he received for his share sixteen 
thousand. The King conferred on him the order of knight 
hood, and afterward appointed him Captain General, and 


being at Boston, was requested by his Excellency 
to treat with Maj. Church about going East with 
him. 31 aj. W alley coming home, did as desired ; 
and to encourage the said Maj. Church, told him, 
that now was the time to have recompence for his 
former great expenses ; saying also, that the coun 
try could not give him less than two or three hun 
dred pounds. So upon his Excellency s request, 
Maj. Church went down to Boston, and waited 
upon him ; who said he was glad to see him, &c. 
A.nd after some discourse told the said Church 
that he w r as going East himself, and that he should 
be his second, and in his absence command all the 
forces. And being requested by his Excellency 
to raise what volunteers he could, of his own sol 
diers in the county of Bristol, both English and 
Indians, received his commission : which is as fol 
io weth. 

Sir WILLIAM PHIPS, Knight, Captain General 
and Governor in Chief, in and over his Majes 
ty s Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in 
New-England : 

To BENJAMIN CHURCH, Gent. Greeting. 

" Reposing special trust and confidence in your 

loyalty, courage, and good conduct, I do by these 

presents constitute and appoint you to be Major 

Governor in Chief of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. 
He arrived in New-England in 1690. Gov. Hutchinson 
says, " he had the character of an honest man, but his tem 
per was hasty, and being a stout man, would use his cane 
and fist after he was Governor." We have no need of ad 
ding what Douglass says of Gov. Phips, that " he was a 
weak governor," &c. when we are told that he joined the ac 
cusers of the witch age of Salem. He was sent for to answer 
to some complaints in Englarid, fl but was cleared ; and when 
about to return to his government, fell sick and died, 1894. 


of the several companies of militia, detached for 
their Majesties service against their French and 
Indian enemies. You are therefore authorized 
and required in their Majesties names, to dis 
charge the duty of a Major, by leading, ordering, 
and exercising the said several companies in arms, 
both inferior officers and soldiers, keeping them in 
good order and discipline, commanding them to 
obey you as their Major ; and diligently to intend 
t -:<: said service, for the prosecuting, pursuing, 
killing and destroying of the said common enemy. 
And yourself to observe and follow such orders 
and directions as you shall from time to time re 
ceive from myself, according to the rules and dis 
cipline of war, pursuant to the trust reposed in you 
for their Majesties service. Given under my hand 
and seal at Boston, the twenty-fifth day of July, 
1692. In the fourth year of the reign of our So 
vereign Lord and Lady William and Mary, by 
the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, &c. 

By His Excellency s command, 

* Mr. Addington was one of those, who took a very ac 
tive part in opposition to the tyrannical measures of Sir 
Edmund Andros. On the accession of William and Mar/ 
he was appointed Secretary, which office he discharged with 
integrity and approbation for some time. It seems that in 
those days as well as at the present, office seekers were not 
entirely unknown, but " the emoluments of that office were 
small, compared with the duty, and so he was in less danger 
of a competitor." He belonged to the council for many- 
years, and was respected as a justice of the peace for wis- 
doin and industry. He died in J 7 14. 


Returning home to the county aforesaid, he 
soon raised a sufficient number of volunteers, both 
English and Indians, and officers suitable to com 
mand them, and marched them down to Boston. 
But there was one thing I would just mention, 
which was, that Major Church being short of .mo 
ney, was forced to borrow six pounds in money of 
Lieut. Woodman, in Litlle-Compton, to distri 
bute by a shilling, and a bit at a time to the In 
dian soldiers ; who, without such allurements, 
would not have marched to Boston. This money 
Maj. Church put into the hands of Mr. William 
Fobes, who was going out their commissary in 
that service, who was ordered to keep a just ac- 
eount of what each Indian had, so that it might 
be deducted out of his wages at their return home. 
Coming to Boston, his Excellency having got 
things in readiness, they embarked on board their 
transports, his Excellency going in person with 
them, being bound to Pemequid. In their way 
they stopped at Casco, and buried the bones of 
the dead people there, and took off the great guns 
that were there ; then went to Pemequid. Com 
ing there his Excellency asked Maj. Church to 
go ashore and give his judgment about erecting a 
fort there. He answered, that his genius did not 
incline that way, for he never had any value for 
them, being only nests for destructions. His Ex 
cellency said he had a special order from their 
Majesties King William and Queen Mary, to 
erect a fort there : then they went ashore and 
pent some time in the projection thereof. His 
Excellency told Maj. Church that he might take 
all the forces except one company to stay with 
him, and work about the fort ; the Major answer- 


ed, that if his Excellency pleased he might keep 
two companies with him, and he would go with 
the rest to Penobscot, and places adjacent ; which 
his Excellency did, and gave Maj. Church his or 
ders, which are as followeth. 
By His Excellency Sir WILLIAM PHIPS, 

Knight, Captain General and Governor in 

Chief, in and over their Majesties Province of 

the Massachusetts Bay, in New England, &c. 
Instructions for Maj. Benjamin Church. 

" Whereas you are Major, and so chief officer 
of a body of men detached out of the militia, ap 
pointed for an expedition against the French and 
Indian enemies ; you are duly to observe the fol 
lowing instructions : 

Imprimis, You are to take care that the wor 
ship of God be duly and constantly maintained 
and kept up among you ; and to suffer no swearing, 
cursing, or other profanation of the holy name of 
God ; and, as much as in you lies, to deter and 
hinder all other vices among your soldiers. 

" 2dly, You are to proceed with the soldiers 
under your command, to Penobscot, and, with 
what privacy and undiscoverable methods you can, 
there to land your men, and take the best mea 
sures to surprise the enemy. 

" 3dly, You are by killing, destroying, and all 
other means possible, to endeavour the destruction 
of the enemy, in pursuance whereof, being satis 
fied of your courage and conduct, I leave the same 
to your discretion. 

" 4thly, You are to endeavour the taking what 
captives you can, either men, women, or children, 
and the same safely to keep and convey them 
unto me. 


" 5thly, Since it is not possible to judge how 
affairs may be circumstanced with you there, I 
shall therefore not limit your return, but leave it 
to your prudence, only that you make no longer 
stay than you can improve for advantage against 
the enemy, or may reasonably hope for the same. 

" Gthly, You are also to take care and be very 
industrious by all possible means to find out and 
destroy all the enemy s corn, and other provisions 
in all places where you can come at the same. 

" 7thly, You are to return from Penobscot and 
those Eastern parts, to make all despatch hence 
for Kennebeck river, and the places adjacent, and 
there prosecute all advantages against the enemy 
as aforesaid. 

8thly, If any soldier, officer, or other shall be 
disobedient to you as their Commander in Chief, or 
other superior officer, or make, or cause any mu 
tiny, commit other offences or disorders, you shall 
call a council of war among your officers, and hav 
ing tried him or them so offending, inflict such 
punishment as the merit of the offence requires, 
death only excepted, which, if any shall deserve, 
3*ou are to secure the person, and signify the crime 
unto me by the first opportunity. 

<; Given under my hand, this llth day of Au 
gust, 1692. WILLIAM PHIPS." 

Then the Major and his forces embarked, and 
made the best of their way to Penobscot. Com 
ing to an island in those parts in the evening, he 
landed his forces at one end of the said island; then 
lie took part of his forces, and moved toward day 
to the other end of the said island, where they 
found two Frenchmen, and their families, one or 


both of whom had Indian women for their wives, 
and had children by them. The Major presently 
examining the Frenchmen, asked where the In 
dians were? They told him, that there were a 
great company of them upon an island just by; 
and showing him the island, presently discovered 
several of them. Major Church and his forces 
still keeping undiscovered asked the Frenchmen 
where their passing place was? which they readi 
ly showed them; so presently they placed an am 
buscade to take any that should come over. Then 
sent orders for all the rest of the forces to come; 
sending them an account of what he had seen and 
met with; strictly charging them to keep them 
selves undiscovered by the enemy. The ambus 
cade did not lie long before an Indian man and 
woman came over in a canoe, to the place for land 
ing, where the ambuscade was laid, who hauled 
up their canoe, and came right into the hands of 
our ambuscade, who so suddenly surprised them 
that they could not give any notice to the others 
from whence they came. The Major ordering 
that none of his should offer to meddle with the 
canoe, lest they should be discovered, hoping to 
take the most of them if his forces came as order^ 
ed, he expecting them to come as directed; but, 
the first news he had of them was, That they were 
all coming, though not privately, as ordered; 
but the vessels fair in sight of the enemy, which 
soon put them all to flight, and our forces not hav 
ing boats suitable to pursue them, they got all 
away in their canoes, and which caused Major 
Church to say, he would never go out again with 
out a sufficient number of whale-boats which, for 
want of, was the ruin of that action. Then I\la- 


jor Church, according to his instructions, ranged 
all those parts, to find all their corn, and carried 
aboard their vessels what he thought convenient, 
and destroyed the rest. Also finding considera 
ble quantities of plunder, viz. beaver, moose-skins, 
&c. Having done what service they could in 
those parts, he returned back to his Excellency at 
Pemequid; where being come, staid not long, 
they being short of bread. His Excsllency in 
tended going home for Boston, for more provis 
ions; but before going, went with Major Church 
and his forces to Kennebeck river, and coming 
there, gave him further orders, which are as fol- 



u You having already received former instruc 
tions, are now further to proceed with the sold 
iers under your command for Kennebeck River, 
and the places adjacent, and use your utmost en 
deavours to kill, destroy, and take captive the 
French and Indian enemies wheresoever you shall 
find any of them; and at your return to Pemequid, 
which you are to do as soon as you can conven 
iently; after your best endeavour done against the 
enemy, and having destroyed their corn and other 
provisions, you are to stay with all your soldiers 
and officers, and set them at work on the fort, and 
make what despatch you can in that business, stay- 
there until my further order. 




Then his Excellency taking leave, went for 
Boston, and soon after Major Church and his 
forces had a smart fight with the enemy in Ken- 
nebeck river. They pursued them so hard that 
they left their canoes, and ran up into the woods; 
and still pursued them up to their fort at Tacon- 
ock, which the enemy perceiving, they set fire to 
their houses in the fort, and ran away by the light 
of them, and when Major Church came to the said 
fort, he found about half their houses standing, 
and the rest burnt; also found great quantities of 
corn, put up into Indian cribs, which he and his 
forces destroyed, as ordered. 

Having done what service he could in those 
parts, returned to -Pemequid,* and there employ 
ed his forces according to his instructions. Being 
out of bread, his Excellency not coming, Maj. 
Church was obliged to borrow bread of the Cap 
tain of the man of war that was then there, for all 
the forces under his command. At length his 
Excellency came, but brought very little bread 
more than would pay what was borrowed of the 
man of war; so that in a short time after Maj, 
Church with his forces, returned home to Boston, 
and had their wages for their good service done. 
Only one thing by the way I will just mention, 
that is, about the six pounds Maj. Church bor 
rowed as afore-mentioned, and put into the hands 
of Mr. Fobes, who distributed the said money, all 
but thirty shillings, to the Indian soldiers, as di 
rected, which was deducted out of their wages, 
and the country had credit for the same; and the 
said Fobes kept the thirty shillings to himsejf, 

*The most northerly limit of New-England. 



which was deducted out of his wages. Where 
upon Maj. W alley and Mr. Fobes had some 
words. In short, Maj. Church was obliged to 
expend about six pounds of his own money in 
marching down the forces both English and In 
dians, to Boston, having no drink allowed them 
upon the road. So that instead of Maj. Church s 
having the allowances afore-mentioned by Maj. 
W alley, he was out of pocket about twelve pounds, 
over and above what he had; all which had not 
been, had not his Excellency been gone out of the 


IN 1696 Maj. Church being at Boston, and 
belonging to the House of Representatives, sev 
eral gentlemen requesting him to go East again, 
the General Court having made acts of encour 
agement, &,c. He told them, if they would pro 
vide whale-boats, and other necessaries conven 
ient, he would. Being also requested by the Gen 
eral Court, he proceeded to raise volunteers, and 
made it his whole buisness, riding both East and 
West in our province and Connecticut, at great 
charges and expenses. And in about a month s 
time he raised a sufficient number out of those 
parts, and marched them down to Boston, where 
he had the promise that every thing should be 
ready in three weeks or a month s time, but was 
obliged to stay considerably longer. Being now 
at Boston, he received his commission and instruc 
tions; which are as folio we th. 


ant Governor, and Commander in Chief, in and 
over his Majesty s province of the Massachu 
setts Bay, in New-England. 
To Maj. BENJAMIN CHURCH, Greeting. 
WHEREAS there are several companies raised 
consisting of Englishmen and Indians, for his 
Majesty s service, to go forth upon the encour 
agement given by the Great and General Court, 
or Assembly of this his Majesty s province, con 
vened at Boston, the 27th of May, 1696, to prose 
cute the French and Indian enemy, &c. ; and you 
having offered yourself to take the command and 
conduct of the said several companies ; by vir 
tue therefore of the power and authority in and by 
his Majesty s royal commission to me granted, 
reposing special trust and confidence in your loy 
alty, prudence, courage and good conduct; I do 
by these psesents constitute and appoint you to be 
Major of the said several companies, both Eng 
lishmen and Indians, raised for his Majesty s ser 
vice upon the encouragement aforesaid. You are 
therefore carefully and diligently to perform the 
duty of your place, by leading, ordering, and ex 
ercising the said several companies in arms, both 
inferior Officers and soldiers, keeping them in 
good order and discipline, commanding them to 
obey you as their Major. And yourself diligent 
ly to intend his Majesty s service for the prose- 

* Mr. Stoughton was born in Dorchester, 1632; graduat 
ed at Harvard College, 1650; was an " excellent" preacher. 
And being recommended to William and Mary by Dr. 
Mather, was appointed Lieutenant Governor. He believed 
in witchcraft, and was among the oppressors of the accused 
in the witch age of Salem. He died a bachelor, 1702. 


cuting, pursuing, taking, killing or destroying the 
said enemy by sea or land; and to observe all such 
orders and instructions as you shall from time to 
time receive from myself, or Commander in Chief 
for the time being, according to the rules and dis 
cipline of war, pursuant to the trust reposed in 
you. Given under my hand and seal at arms, at 
Boston, the third day of August, 1696, in the 
eighth year of the reign of our sovereign Lord 
William the Third, by the grace of God, of Eng 
land, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, De 
fender of the Faith, &c. 

By command of the Lieut. Governor, &c. 

Province of the Massachusetts-Bay. 
By the Right Honorable the Lieutenant Governor 
and Commander in Chief. 

Instructions for Maj. Benjamin Church, Comman 
der of the forces raised for his Majesty s ser 
vice, against the French and Indian enemy 
and rebels. 

PURSUANT to the commission given you, you 
are to embark the forces now furnished and equip 
ped for his Majesty s service on the present expe 
dition, to the Eastern parts of this province, and 
with them, and such others as shall offer them 
selves to go forth on the said service, to sail unto 
Piscataqua, to join ihose lately despatched thither 
for the same expedition, to await your coming. 
And with all care and diligence to improve the 
vessels, boats and men under your command, in 


search for, prosecution and pursuit of the said 
enemy, at such places where you may be informed 
of their abode or resort, or where you may proba 
bly expect to find, or meet with them, and take 
all advantages against them which Providence 
shall favour you with. 

You are not to enlist or accept any soldiers that 
are already in his Majesty s pay, and posted at 
any town or garrison within this province, without 
special order from myself. 

You are to require and give strict orders that 
the duties of religion be attended on board the sev 
eral vessels, and in the several companies under 
your command, by daily prayers unto God, and 
reading his holy word, and observance of the 
Lord s Day, to the utmost you can. 

You are to see that your soldiers have their 
due allowance of provisions and other necessa 
ries, and that the sick and wounded be accom 
modated in the best manner your circumstances 
will admit. And that good order and command 
may be kept up and maintained in the several com 
panies, and all disorders, drunkenness, profane 
cursing, swearing, disobedience to Officers, muti 
nies, omissions or neglect of duty, be duly punish 
ed according to the laws martial. And you are 
to require the Captain or chief Officer of each 
company, with the clerk of the same, to keep an 
exact journal of all their proceedings from tim 
to time. 

In case any of the Indian enemy and rebels 
offer to submit themselves, you are to iecieve 
them only at discretion; but if you think fit to im 
prove any of them, or any others which you may 
happen to take prisoners, you may encourage them 


to be faithful by the promise of their lives, whi/b 
shall be granted upon approbation of their fidelity. 

You are carefully to look after the Indians 
which you have out of the prison, so that !h .y 
may not have opportunity to escape, but other 
wise improve them to what advantage you can. 
and return them back again to this place. 

You are to advise, as you can have occasion, 
with Capt. John Gorham, who accompanies you 
in this expedition, and is to take your command 
in case of your death. A copy of these 
tions you are to leave with him, and to give me 
an account from time to time of your proceedings. 

Boston, August 12, 1696. 

In the time Major Church lay at Boston, the 
news came of Pemequid fort s being taken. It came 
by a shallop, that brought some prisoners to Bos 
ton, who gave an account also that there was 
a French ship at Mount Desart, who had taken a 
ship of ours; so the discourse was, that they would 
send the man of war, with other forces to take the 
said French ship, and retake ours. But in the 
mean time, Major Church and his forces being 
ready, embarked, and on the 15th day of August, 
set sail for Piscataqua, where more men were to 
jtjin them; but before they left Boston, Major 
Church discoursed with the Captain of the man 
of war, who promised him, if he went to Mount 
Desart, in pursuit of the French ship, that he 
would call for him and his forces at Piscataqua, 
expecting that the French and Indians might not 
be far from the said French ship, so that he might 


have an opportunity to fight them while he was en 
gaged with the French ship. Soon after the forces 
arrived at Piscataqua, the Major sent his In 
dian soldiers to Col. Gidney, at York, to be as 
sisting for the defence of those places, who gave 
them a good commend for their ready and willing 
services done, in scouting and the like. Lying at 
Piscataqua with the rest of our forces near a week, 
waiting for more forces who were to join them, 
to make up their complement; in all which time 
heard never a word of the man of war. On the 
22d of August they all embarked for Piscataqua, 
and when they came against York, the Major 
went ashore, sending Capt. Gorham with some 
forces in two brigantines and a sloop, to Winter- 
Harbour, ordering him to send out scouts, to see 
if they could make any discovery of the enemy, 
and to wait there till he came to them. Major 
Church coming to York, Col. Gidney told him 
his opinion was, that the enemy were drawn off 
from those parts, for that the scouts could not dis 
cover any of them, nor their tracks. So having 
done his business there, went with what forces he 
had there, to Winter-Harbour, where he had the 
same account from Capt. Gorham, that tl>;y had 
not discovered any of the enemy, nor any r^v 
tracks; so, concluding they were gone l.^m thv,. i .e 
parts, towards Penobscot, the Major ordered all 
the vessels to come re sail and make the best of 
their way to Monhegio, which being not far from 
Penobscot, where the main boJy of our enemies 
living was. Being in great hopes, to come up with 
the army of French and Indians, before th-y hud 
scut 1 or; , J ,cud were gone past Penobscot, or Mount 
I xart, which is the chief place of their departure 


from each other after such actions. Having a fail- 
wind, made the best of their way, and early next 
morning they got into Monhegin, and there lay 
all day fitting their boats, and other necessaries to 
embark in the night at Mussel-neck with their 
boats; lying there all day to keep undiscovered 
from the enemy. At night the Major ordered the 
vessels all to come to sail, and carry the forces 
over the bay, near Penobscot; but having little 
wind, he ordered all the soldiers to embark on 
board the boats with eight day s provision, and 
sent the vessels back to Monhegin, that they might 
not be discovered by the enemy; giving them or 
ders when and where they should come to him. 
The forces being all ready in their boats, rowing 
very hard, got ashore at a point near Penobscot, 
just as the day broke, and hid their boats, and 
keeping a good look out by sea, and sent scouts 
out by land; but could not discover either canoes 
or Indians; what tracks and fire places they saw 
were judged to be seven or eight days before they 
came. As soon as night came, that they might 
go undiscovered, got into their boats and went by 
Mussel-neck, and so among Penobscot Islands, 
looking very sharp as they went for fires on the 
shore, and for canoes, but found neither. Getting 
up to Mathebestucks hills, day coming on, landed, 
and hid their boats; looking out for the enemy, 
as the day before, but to little purpose. Night 
coming on, took to their oars again, working very 
hard, turned the night into day, which made seve 
ral of their new soldiers grumble; but telling them 
they hoped to come up quickly with the enemy, 
put new life into them; and by day light they got 
into the mouth of the river, where landing, found 


many rendezvous and fire places where the Indians 
had been; but at the same space of time as before 
mentioned. No canoes passed up the river that 
day. Their pilot, Joseph York, informed the 
Major that 50 or 60 miles up that river, at the 
great falls, the enemy had a great rendezvous, 
and planted a great quantity of corn, when he was 
a prisoner with them four years ago, and that he 
was very well acquainted there; this gave great 
encouragement to have had some considerable ad- 


vantage of the enemy at that place; so using their 
utmost endeavours to get up there undiscovered, 
and coming there, found no enemy, nor corn plant 
ed, they having deserted the place. And ranging 
about the falls on both sides of the river, leaving 
men on the east side of the said river, and the 
boats just below the falls, with a good guard to se 
cure them, and to take the enemy if they came 
down the river in their canoes. The west side 
being the place where the enemy lived and best 
to travel on, they resolved to range as privately 
as they could. A mile or two above the falls 
they discovered a birch canoe coming down with 
two Indians in it; the Major sent word immedi 
ately back to those at the Falls, to lie very close 
and let them pass down the falls, and to take them 
alive, that he might have intelligence where the 
enemy were, which would have been a great ad 
vantage to them; but a foolish soldier seeing them 
passing by him, shot at them, contrary to orders, 
which prevented them going into the ambuscade 
that was laid for them; whereupon, several more 
of our men being near, shot at them; so that one 
of them could not stand when he got ashore, but 
crept away into the brush; the other stepped out 


out of the canoe with his paddle in his hand, and 
ran about a rod, and then threw down his paddle, 
and turned back and took up his gun, and so es 
caped. One of our Indians swam over the river 
and fetched the canoe, wherein was a considerable 
quantity of blood on the seats, that the Indians 
sat on; the canoe having several holes shot in her. 
They stopped the holes, and then Capt. Bracket 
with an Indian soldier, went over the river, who 
tracked them by fche blood about half a mile, found 
his gun, took it up, and seeing the blood no fur 
ther, concluded that he stopped his blood, and so 
got away. In the mean time another canoe with 
three men were coming down the river, were fired 
at by some of our forces, ran ashore, and left two 
of their guns in the canoe, which were taken, and 
also a letter from a Priest to Casteen, that gave 
him an account of the French and Indians return 
ing over the lake to Mount Royal, and of their 
little service done upon the Maquas Indians west 
ward, only demolishing one fort, and cutting down 
some corn, &c. He desired to hear of the pro 
ceedings of Deborahuel, and the French man of 
war; and informed him that there were several 
canoes coming with workmen from Quebec, to 
St. Johns, where since we concluded it was to 
build a fort at the river s mouth, where the great 
guns were taken, &,c. It being just night, the 
officers were called together to advise, and their 
pilot, York, informed them of a fort up that river, 
and that it was built on a little island in that river; 
and that there was no getting to it but in canoes, 
or on the ice in the winter time. This, with the 
certain knowledge that we were discovered by the 
enemy that escaped out of the upper canoe, con- 


eluded it not proper, at that time, to proceed any 
further up, and that there was no getting any fur 
ther with our boats; and the enemy being alarmed 
would certainly fly from them, and do as they did 
four years ago at their fort at Taconock; having 
fought them in Kennebeck river, and pursued them 
about thirty miles to Taconock; for they then set 
their fort on fire, and run away by the light of it, 
ours not being able to come up with them at that 
place. Maj. Church then encouraging his sol 
diers told them, he hoped they should meet with 
part of the enemy in Penobscot-Bay or at Mount- 
Desart, where the French ships were. So not 
withstanding they had been rowing several nights 
before, with much toil, besides were short of pro 
visions, they cheerfully embarked on board their 
boats, and went down the river, both with and 
against the tide; and next morning came to their 
vessels, where the Major had ordered them to 
meet him, who could give him no intelligence of 
any enemy. Where being come they refreshed 
themselves; meeting then with another disappoint 
ment, for their pilot York not being acquainted 
any further, they began to lament the loss of one 
Robert Cawley, on whom they chiefly depended 
for all the service to be done now eastward; he 
having been taken away from them the night be 
fore they set sail from Boston, and put on board 
the man of war, unknown to Maj. Church; not 
withstanding he had been at the charge and trou 
ble of procuring him. Then the Major was oblig 
ed to one Bord, procured by Mr. William Alden, 
who being acquainted in those parts, to leave his 
vessel, and go with him in the boats, which he 
readily complied with, and so went to Nasket- 


point; where being informed was a likely place to 
meet with the enemy. Coming there they found 
several houses and small fields of corn, the fires 
having been out several days, and no new tracks. 
But upon Penobscot island they found several In 
dian houses, corn, and turnips, though the enemy 
still being all gone, as before-mentioned. Then 
they divided and sent their boats some one way, 
and some another, thinking that if any straggling 
Indians, or Casteen himself, should be thereabout, 
they might find them, but it proved all in vain. 
Himself and several boats went to Mount-Desart, 
to see if the French ships were gone, and whether 
any of the enemy might be there, but to no pur 
pose; the ships being gone, and the enemy also. 
They being now got several leagues to the west 
ward of their vessels; and seeing that the way was 
clear for their vessels to pass: and all their ex 
treme rowing and travelling by land and water, 
night and day, to be all in vain. The enemy 
having left those parts, as they judged, about eight 
or ten days before. And then returning to their 
vessels, the commander calling all his officers to 
gether, to consult and resolve what to do, con 
cluded that the enemy, by some means or other, 
had received some intelligence of their being come 
out against them; and that they were in no neces 
sity to come down to the sea side as yet, moose 
and beaver now being fat. They then agreed to 
go so far East, and employ themselves, that the 
enemy belonging to those parts, might think they 
were gone home. Having some discourse about 
going over to St. Johns; but the masters of the 
vessels said, they had as good carry them to Old 
France, &c. which put off that design; they con- 



eluding that the French ships were there. Then 
the Major moved for going over the hay, towards 
Lahane, and towards the Gut of Cancer, where 
was another considerable fort of Indians, who often 
came to the assistance of our enemy, the barba 
rous Indians; saying, that by the time they should 
return again, the enemy belonging to these parts 
would come down again, expecting that we were 
gone home. But in short, could not prevail with 
the masters of the open sloops to venture across 
the bay; who said it was very dangerous so late in 
the year, and as much as their lives were worth. 
Then they resolved to go to Senactaca, wherein 
there was a ready compliance, but the want of 
their pilot, Robert Crawley, was a great damage 
to them, who knew ail those parts. However. 
Mr. John Alden, master of the brigantine Endeav 
our, piloted them up the bay to vSenactaca. And 
coming to Grindstone-point, being riot far from 
Senactaca; then came to with all the vessels, and 
early next morning came to sail, and about sun 
rise got into town. But it being so late before 
we landed, that the enemy, most of them, made 
their escape, and as it happened, landed where the 
French and Indians had some time before killed 
Lieut. John Paine, and several of Capt. Smith- 
son s men, that were with said Paine. They 
seeing our forces coming took the opportunity, 
fired several guns, and so ran all into the woods, 
carried all, or most part of their goods with them 
One Jarman Bridgway came running towards our 
forces, with a gun in one hand, and his cartridge- 
box in the other, calling to our forces to stop, that 
he might speak with them; but Maj. Church 
thinking it was that they might have some advan- 



tage, ordered them to run on; when the said 
Bridgway saw they would not stop, turned and 
ran, but the Major called unto him, and hid him 
stop, or he should be shot down. Some of our for 
ces being near to the said Bridgway, said it was 
the General that called to him. He, hearing that, 
stopped and turned about, laid down his gun, arid 
stood till the Major came up to him. His desire 
was, that the commander would make haste with 
him to his house, lest the savages should kill his 
father and mother, who were upward of four-score 
years of age, and could not go. The Major ask 
ed the said Bridgway whether there were any 
Indians among them, and where they lived? He 
shook his head and said, he dared not tell, for if 
he did, they would take an opportunity and kill 
him and his; so all that could be got out of him 
was, that they were run into the woods with the 
rest. Then orders were given to pursue the ene 
my, and to kill what Indians they could find, and 
take the French alive, and give them quarter if 
they asked it. Our forces soon took three French 
men, who, upon examination, said, that the In 
dians were all run into the woods. The French 
fired several guns at our forces, and ours at them; 
but they being better acquainted with the woods 
than ours, got away. The Major took the above- 
said Jarman Bridgway for a pilot, and with some 
of his forces went over a river, to several of their 
houses, but the people were gone and carried 
their goods with them. In ranging the woods 
they found several Indian houses, their fires being 
just out, but no Indians. Spending that day in 
ranging to and fro, found considerable of their 
goods, and but few people; at night the Major 


wrote a letter, and sent out two French prisoners, 
wherein was signified, that if they would come in, 
they should have good quarters. The next day 
several came in, which did belong to that part of 
the town where our forces first landed, who had 
encouragements given them by our Commander, 
that if they would assist him in taking those In 
dians which belonged to those parts, they should 
have their goods returned to them again, and their 
estates should not be damnified; this they refused. 
Then the Major and his forces pursued their de 
sign, and went further ranging their country, found 
several more houses, but the people fled, and car 
ried what they had away; but in a creek found a 
prize bark, that was brought in there by a French 
privateer. In ranging the woods they took some 
prisoners, who upon examination gave our Com 
mander an account, that there were some Indians 
upon a neck of land, towards Menes; so a party 
of men was sent into those woods, and in their 
ranging about the said neck found some plunder, 
and a considerable quantity of whortleberries, 
both green and dry, which were gathered by the 
Indians, and had like to have taken two Indians, 
who, by the help of a birch canoe, got over the 
river, and made their escape. Also they foun<! 
two barrels of powder, and near half a bushel oi 
bullets; the French denying them to be theirs, 
said they were the savages , but surely it might 
be a supply for our enemies. Also they took 
from Jarman Bridgway several barrels of powder, 
with bullets, shot, spears and knives, and other 
supplies to relieve our enemies; he owning that 
he had been a trading with those Indians along 
Cape-Sable shore, with Peter Assnow, in a sloop 


our forces took from him; and that there he met 
with the French ships, and went along with them 
to St. Johns, and helped them to unload the said 
ships, and carried up the river provisions, ammu 
nition, and other goods to Vilboon s fort. 

The Major having ranged all places that were 
thought proper, returned back to the place wlu re 
they first landed; and finding several prisoners 
had come in, who were troubled to see their cat 
tle, sheep, hogs and dogs lying dead about their 
houses, chopped and hacked with hatchets, which 
was done without order from the Major; however 
he told them, " It is nothing to what our poor 
English, in our frontier towns are forced to look 
upon. For men women and children are chopped 
and hacked so, and left half dead, with all their 
scalps taken off, and your Indians served ours so; 
and our savages would be glad to serve them so 
too, if I would permit them, 5 which caused them 
to be mighty submissive, and begged the Major 
that he would not let the savages serve them so. 
Our Indians being somewhat sensible of the dis 
course, desired to have some of them to roast, and 
so make a dance. And dancing in a hideous 
manner, to terrify them, said that they could eat 
any sort of flesh, and that some of theirs would 
make their hearts strong. Stepping up to some 
of the prisoners, said, they must have their scalps, 
which much terrified the poor -prisoners, who beg 
ged for their lives. The Major told them he did 
not design the savages should hurt them; but it 
was to let them see a little what the poor English 
felt, saying, it was not their scalps he wanted, 
but the savages, for he should get nothing by 
them; and told them, that their fathers, the Fri- 


ars and Governors, encouraged their savages, and 
gave them money to scalp our English, notwith 
standing they were \vith them, which several of 
our English, there present, did testify to their fa 
ces, that their fathers and mothers were served so 
in their sight. But the Major bid them tell their 
fathers the Friars, and the Governors, that if they 
still persisted, and let their wretched savages kill 
and destroy the poor English at that rate, he 
would come with some hundreds of savages, and 
let them loose amongst them, who would kill, 
scalp, and carry away every French person in all 
those parts; for they were the root from whence 
all the branches came that hurt us; for the Indians 
could not do us any harm, if they did not relieve 
and supply them. The French being sensible of 
the Major s kindness to them, kissed his hand, 
and were very thankful to him for his favour to 
them in saving their lives ; owned that their 
Priests were at the taking of Pemequid fort, and 
were now gone to Layhone, with some of the 
Indians, to meet the French ships, but for what 
they would not tell. 

The Commander, with his forces, having done 
all they could in those parts, concluded to go to 
St. Johns river, to do further service for their 
king and country, and embarked all on board their 
transports.* Having a fair wind, they soon got 
to Monogenest, which lies a little distance from 
the mouth of St. Johns river. Next morning 
early the Major with his forces landed, to see 
what discoveries they could make, travelled across 
the woods to the old fort, or falls, at the mouth of 

* The 20th September, 1696. 


St. Johns river, keeping themselves undiscovered 
from the enemy. Finding there were several men 
at work, and having informed themselves as much 
as they could; the enemy being on the other side 
of the river could not come at them, they return 
ed back ; but night coming on, and dark wet 
weather, with bad travelling, were obliged to stop 
in the woods till toward day next morning, and 
then went on board. Soon after the Major or 
dered all the vessels to come to sail, and go into 
the month of the river. Being done, it was riot 
long before the Major and his forces landed on 
the east side of the river, the French firing brisk 
ly at them, but did them no harm; and running 
fiercely upon the enemy, they soon fled into the 
woods. The Major ordered a brisk party to run 
across the neck to cut them off from their canoes, 
which the day before they had made a discovery 
of; so the commander with the rest, ran directly 
toward the new fort they were building, not know 
ing but they had some ordnance mounted. The 
enemy running directly toward their canoes, were 
met by our forces, who fired at them, and killed 
one, and wounded Corporal Canton, who was 
taken; the rest threw down what they had and 
ran into the woods. The said prisoner Canton 
being brought to the Major, told him, if he would 
let his surgeon dress his wound and cure him, he 
would be serviceable to him as long as he lived. 
So, being dressed, he was examined, and gave to 
the Major an account of the twelve great guns 
which were hid in the beach, below high water 
mark, the carriages, shot and wheelbarrows, and 
some flour and pork, all hid in the woods. The 
next morning the officers being ail ordered to meet 


together to consult about going to Vilboon s fort, 
and none among them being acquainted but the 
Alderis, who said the water in the river was very 
low, so that they could not get up to the fort. 
And the prisoner Canton told the Commander, 
that what the Aldens said was true. So not be 
ing willing to make a Canada expedition, conclud 
ed it was not practicable to proceed. He then 
ordered some of the forces to get the great guns 
on board the open sloops, and the rest to range 
the woods for the eneYny, who took and brought 
in one prisoner; and in their ranging found a shal 
lop haled into a creek; and a day or two after 
there came in a young soldier to our forces, who, 
upon examination, gave . an account of two more 
which he left in the woods at some distance. So 
immediately the Major, with some of his forces t 
went in pursuit of them, taking the said prisoner 
with them, who conveyed them to the place where 
he left them, but they were gone. He then ask 
ed the prisoner whether there were any Indians 
in those parts? who said, No; it was as hard for 
Vilboon, their Governor, to get an Indian down 
to the water side, as it was for him to carry one 
of those great guns upon his back to his fort; for 
they having had intelligence by a prisoner out of 
Boston gaol, that gave them an account of Major 
Church and his forces coming out against them. 
Now having, with a great deal of pains and 
trouble, got all the guns, shot and other stores on 
board, intended on the design which we came out 
first for; but the wind not serving, the commander 
sent out his scouts into the woods, to seek for the 
enemy; and four of our Indians came upon three 
Frenchmen undiscovered, who concluded thak-if 



the French should discover them they would fire 
at them, and might kill one or more of them, 
which to prevent they fired at the French, killed 
one, and took the other two prisoners. And it 
happened that he who was killed was Shanelere, 
the chief man there. The same day they mended 
their whale-boats, and the shallop which they 
took, fitting her to row with eight oars, that she 
might be helpful to the prosecution of their in 
tended design against the enemy, in their return 
homeward. Then the C ommander, ordering all 
the officers to come together, informed them of his 
intentions, and ordered that no vessel should de 
part from the fleet, but to attend the motions of 
their Commodore, as formerly, except they were 
parted by storms or thick fogs; and if so it should 
1 appen that any should part, when they came to 
Fassemaquaddy they should stop there awhile, for 
there they intended to stop, and do business, with 
the help of their boats, against the enemy; and if 
they missed that, to stop at Machias, which was 
the next place he intended to stop at, having an 
account by the prisoners taken, that Mr. Lateril 
was there trading with the Indians in that river. 
Encouraging them, he said, he did not doubt but 
to have a good booty there. And if they should 
pass those two places, be sure not to pass Naskege 
point, but to stop there till he came, and not to de 
part from thence in a fortnight without his orders, 
having great service to do in and about Penobscot, 
&,c. Then the Major discoursed with Captains 
Brackit, Hunewell and Larking, and their Lieu 
tenants, commanders of the forces belonging to 
the eastern parts, who were to discourse with their 
soldiers about their proceedings when they came 


to Penobscot; and the Major himself was to dis 
course with his Indian soldiers and their captains, 
who with all the rest readily complied. The pro 
jection being such, that when they came to Pe- 
nobscot, the Commander designed to take what 
provisions could be spared out of all the sloops, 
and put on board the two brigantines, and to send 
all the sloops home with some of the officers and 
men that wanted to be at home. And then, with 
those forces before mentioned, viz. the Eastward 
men and all the Indians; and to take what provi 
sions and ammunition were needful, and to inarch 
himself up into the Penobscot country, in search 
for the enemy, and if possible to take the fort in 
Penobscot river. Captain Brackit informed the 
Major, that when the water was low they could 
wade over, which was at that time the lowest that 
had been known in a long time; and being there, 
to range through that country down to Pemequid, 
where he intended the two brigantines should meet 
them. And from thence taking more provisions, 
viz. bread, salt and ammunition suitable, to send 
those two vessels home also, to travel through the 
country to Neridgiwack,* and from thence to 
Ameras-cogen fort, and so down where the enemy 
used to plant, riot doubting but that in all this 
travel to meet with many of the enemy before 
they should get to Piscataqua. All which inten 
tions were very acceptable to the forces that were 
to undertake it, who, rejoicing, said, they had 
rather go home by land than by water, provided 
their Commander went with them, who, to try 
their fidelity, said he was grown ancient, and 

* Norridgewock. 


might fail them. They all said, they would not 
leave him, and when he could not travel any fur 
ther they would carry him. Having done what 
service they could at and about the mouth of St. 
Johns river, resolved on their intended design; 
and the next morning having but little wind, carne 
all to sail; the wind coming against them, they 
put into Mushquash cove, and the next day j e 
wind still being against them, the Major with part 
of his forces landed, and employed themselves in 
ranging the country for the enemy, but to no pur 
pose. In the night the wind came pretty fair, 
and at 12 o clock they came to sail, and had not 
been out long before they espied three sails of ves 
sels; expecting them to be French, fitted to de 
fend themselves; so coming near, hailed them, and 
found them to be a man of war, the Province 
Galley, and old Mr. Alden* in a sloop, with more 
forces, Colonel Hathornef Commander. Major 
Church went aboard the Commodore, where Col. 
Hathorne was, who gave him an account of his 
commission and orders, and read them to him. 
Then his Honor told Major Church, that there 
was a particular order on board Capt. Southack 
for him, which is as folio weth.J 

* This is the Mr. Alden mentioned by Hutchinson, who 
was imprisoned for witchcraft, at Saiem, and was examined 
by Major Hawthorn, under whom he appears in this expe 

f Hawthorn. HUTCH, vol. ii. p. 94. 

j Hutchinson says " this was an impolitic measure of the 
government, unless any misconduct in Church made it ne 
cessary that he should be superceded;" but this he does not 
make appear, nor any other author except Charlevoix. 
Colonel Church could not but be offended at their conduct, 
and we need not wonder, that, after this, things went on 


Boston, September 9, 1696. 

His Majesty s ship Orford having lately sur 
prised a French shallop, with twenty-three of the 
soldiers belonging to the fort upon Johns river, 
in Nova-Scotia, together with Villeau, their Cap 
tain, Providence seems to encourage the forming 
of an expedition to attack that fort, and to disrest 
and remove the enemy from that post, which is 
the chief source from whence the most of our dis 
asters do issue, and also to favour with an oppor 
tunity for gaining out of their hands the ordnance, 
artillery, and other warlike stores, and provisions, 
lately supplied to them from France, for erecting 
a new fort near the river s mouth, whereby they 
will be greatly strengthened, and the reducing of 
them rendered more difficult. I have therefore 
ordered a detachment of two new companies, con 
sisting of about a hundred men to join the forces 
now with you for that expedition, and have com 
missioned Lieut. Col. John Hathorne, one of the 
members of his Majesty s Council, who is ac 
quainted with that river, and in whose courage 
and conduct I repose special trust, to take the 
chief command of the whole during that service, 
being well assured that your good affections and 
zeal for his Majesty s service will induce your 
ready compliance and assistance therein, which, I 
hope, will take up no long time, and be of great 
benefit and advantage to these his Majesty s ter 
ritories, if it please God to succeed the same. 
Besides, it is very probable to be the fairest op 
portunity, that can be offered unto yourself and 
men, of doing execution upon the Indian enemy 
and rebels, who may reasonably be expected to 


be drawn to the defence of that fort. I have also 
ordered his Majesty s ship Arundel, and the 
Province galley to attend this service. 

Col. Hathorne will communicate unto you the 
contents of his commission and instructions reciev- 
ed from myself for this expedition, which I expect 
and order that yourself, officers and soldiers, now 
under you, yield obedience unto. He is to advise 
with yourself and others in all weighty attempts. 
Praying for a blessing from Heaven upon the said 
enterprise, and that all engaged in the same may 
be under the special protection of the Almighty; 
1 am your loving friend, 


The Major having read his last orders, and con 
sidering his commission, found that he was obliged 
to attend all orders, &LC. was much concerned 
that he and his were prevented in their intended 
projection, if carried rnck to St. Johns. Then 
discoursing with Col. Hathorne, gave him an ac 
count of what they had done at St. Johns, viz. 
That as to the demolishing the new fort, they had 
done it, and got all their great guns and stores 
aboard their vessels; and that if it had not been 
that the waters were so low, would have 
taken the fort up the river; also before he came 
away. Told him also that one of the prisoners 
which he had taken at St. John s, upon examina 
tion, concerning the Indians in those parts, told 
him, it was as hard for Filboon,* their Governor to 
get one of their Indians down to the water-side, 
as to carry one of those great guns upon his back; 

* Villebon., 


and that they had an account of him and his foiv<>s 
coming to those parts by a prisoner out of Boston 
goal. Also told his Honour, that if they went back, 
it would wholly disappoint them of their doing an} 
further service, which they came for to Penobscoi, 
and places adjacent. But all was to no purpose, 
his Honour telling the Major that he uiust attend 
his orders then received. And to encourage the 
officers and soldiers, told them they should be- 
wholly at the Major s ordering and command in 
the whole action. And to be short did go back, 
and the event may be seen in Col. Hathorae s 
journal of the said action.* Only I must observe 
one thing by the way. When they drew off to 
come down the river again, Col. Hathorne came 
off and left the Major behind to see that all the 
forces were drawn off, who coming down the 
river, in or near the rear, in the night heard a 
person halloo, not knowing at first but it might be 
a snare to draw them into, but upon consideration, 
sent to see who or what he was, found him to be 
a negro man belonging to Marblehead, that had 
been taken, and kept a prisoner among them for 
some time. The Major "asked him, whether he 

* It is not particularly mentioned about this expedition 
in any thing extant. It appears that the French com 
mander, Villebon, had notice of their return, and had pre 
pared to receive them. They effected a landing, Oct. 7; 
not, however, without opposition. They raised a battery 
near the fort, on which they planted two field-pieces, and 
commenced an attack upon it. The following night being 
very cold, the English made fires that they might not per 
ish; but this being a mark for the enemy *s cannon, were 
obliged to put thera out, and suffer the inclemencies 01 ihe 
weather. Their clothing being as it were worn our, ren 
dered their situation intolerable. No mention is made of 
the number killed in these encounters, 



could give any account of the Indians in those 
parts? He said yes, they were or had been al 
drawn off from the sea coast, up into the woods 
near an hundred miles, having had an account by 
a prisoner out of Boston gaol, that Major Church 
and his forces were coming out against them in 
four brigantines, and four sloops, with 24 petti- 
augers, meaning whale-boats, which put them into 
a fright, that notwithstanding they were so far up 
in the woods, were afraid to make fires by day, les 
he and his forces should discover the smokes, am 
in the night lest they should see the light. On 
thing more, I would just give a hint of, that is 
how the French in the eastward parts were much 
surprised at the motion of the whale-boats. They 
said, there was no abiding for them in that coun 
try. And I have been informed since, that soon 
after this expedition, they drew off from St. Johns 
fort and river. But to return. Going all down 
the river, they embarked and went homeward. By 
the way, Candid Reader, I would let you kno>N 
of two things that proved very prejudicial to 
jor Church and his forces. The first was, tha 
the government should miss it so much as to sent 
any prisoner away from Boston before the expe 
dition was over. Secondly, that they should sem 
Col. Hathorne to take them from the service am 
business they went to do; who, with submission 
doubtless thought they did for the best, though i 
proved to the contrary. So shall wind up with a 
just hint of what happened, at their coming home 
to Boston. After all their land service, both 
night and day, the government took away all the 
gr*at guns, and warlike stores, and gave them 
not a penny for them, except some powder 


and that they gave what they pleased for. And 
besides the Assembly passed a vote, that they 
should have but half pay. But his Honour, the 
Lieutenant Governor being much disturbed at 
their so doing, went into the Town-House, where 
the Representatives were sitting, and told them, 
except they did reassume that vote, which was to 
cut Major Church and his forces oif their half-pay, 
they should sit there till the next spring. Where, 
upon it was reassumed; so that they had just 
their bare wages. But as yet never had any al 
lowance for the great guns and stores; neither has 
Major Church had any allowance for all his travel 
and great expenses in raising the said forces. 


IN the year 1703 4, Major Church had an ac 
count of the miserable devastations made on 
Deerfield,* a town in the westward parts of this 
Province, and tjie horrible barbarities and cruel 
ties exercised on those poor innocent people, by 
the French and Indians; especially of their cruel 
ties toward that worthy gentlewoman, Mrs. Wil 
liams,* and several others, whom they marched in 
that extreme season, forcing them to carry great 
loads, and when any of them by their hard usage 
could not bare with it, they were knocked on the 
head, and so killed in cool blood. All which, 
with some other horrible instances done by those 
barbarous savages, which Major Church himself 
was an eye-witness to, in his former travels in chc 

* See Appendix, 


eastward parts, did much astonish him. To see a 
woman that those barbarous savages had taken 
and killed, exposed in the most brutish manner 
that can be expressed, with a young child seized 
fast with strings to her breast; which infant had 
no apparent wound, doubtless was left alive to 
suck his dead mother s breast, and so miserably 
to perish. Also to see other poor children hang 
ing upon fences dead, of either sex, in their own 
poor rags, not worth theh- stripping them of, in 
scorn and derision. Anoiher instance was, of a 
straggling soldier, who was found at Casco, ex* 
posed in a shameful and barbarous manner. His 
body being staked up, his head cut off, and a hog s 
head set in the * room, his body ripped up, and his 
heart and inwards taken out, and private members 
cut off, and hung with belts of their own, the in 
wards at one side of his body, and his privates at 
the other, in scorn and derision of the English sol 
diers, &c. These and such like barbarities caus 
ed Maj. Church to express himself to this purpose, 
4 - that if he were Commander in Chief of these 
provinces, he would soon put an end to those bar 
barities done by the barbarous enemy, by making 
it his whole buisness to fight and destroy those 
savages, as they did our poor neighbours; which 
doubtless might have been done if rightly man 
aged, and that in a short time." So that these, 
with the late inhumanities done upon the inhabi 
tants of Deerficlcl, made such an impression on his 
heart as cannot well be expressed; so that his 
blood boiled within him. Making such impulses 
on his mind, that he forgot all former treatments, 
which were enough to hinder any man, especially 
the said Maj. Church, from doing any further sex- 


vice. Notwithstanding all which, having a mind 
to take some satisfaction on the enemy, his heart 
feeing full, took his horse and went from his own 
habitation, near seventy miles, to wait upon his 
Excellency, and offered his service to the Queen, 
his Excellency and the country, which was readi 
ly accepted of. He desired Maj. Church to draw 
a scheme for the ensuing action, or actions; so 
taking leave went home, and drew it; which is as 

Tiverton, February 5, 1703. 


According to your request, when I 
was last with yourself, and in obedience thereun 
to, I present you with these following lines, that 
concern the preparation for next spring s expedi 
tion, to attack the enemy. According to my for 
mer direction, for it is good to have a full stroke 
at them first, before they have opportunity to run 
for it; for the first of our action will be our op 
portunity to destroy them, and to prevent their 
running away, in way-laying every passage; and 
make them know we are in good earnest, and so 
we being in a diligent use of means, may hope 
for a blessing from the Almighty, and that He 
will be pleased to put a dread in their hearts, that 
they may fall before us and perish. For my ad 
vice is, 

1st, That ten or twelve hundred good able sol 
diers, well equipped, be in a readiness fit for action, 
by the first of April at farthest, for then, will be 
the time to be upon action. 

2dly, That five and forty or fifty good whale- 
boats be had ready, well fitted, with five good, 


oars, and twelve or fifteen good paddles to each 
boat; and upon the wale of each boat five pieces 
of strong leather be fastened on each side, to slip 
five strong ash bars through, so that, whenever 
they land, the men may step overboard, and slip 
in said bars across, and take up said boat, that 
she may not be hurt against the rocks; and that 
two suitable brass kettles be provided to belong 
to each boat, to cook the men s victuals in, to 
make their lives comfortable. 

3dly, That four or five hundred pair of good 
Indian shoes be made ready, fit for the service, for 
the English and Indians, that must improve the 
whale-boats, and birch canoes, for they will be 
very proper, and safe for that service; and let 
there be a good store of cow-hides, well tanned, 
lor a supply of such shoes; and hemp to make 
thread, and wax, to mend and make more such 
shoes when wanted, and a good store of awls. 

It.hly, That there be an hundred large hatchets, 
or light axes, made pretty broad, and steeled with 
the best steel that can be gotten, (and made by 
workmen, that they may cut well, and hold, that 
the hemlock knots may not break or turn them,) 
TO widen the landing place up the fulls, for it may 
happen that we may get up, with some of our 
whale-boats, to their falls or headquarters. 

5thly, That there be a suitable quantity of 
small bags, or wallets provided, that every man 
that wants may have one, to put up his bullets in, 
of such a size as will fit his gun, and not be serv 
ed as at Casco. That every man s bag be so 
marked that he may not change it. For if so, 
it will make a great con/uaion in ..action. That 
every imai s store of ball be weighed to him, fc&at 


so he may be accountable, and may not squander 
it away. And also his store of powder, that so 
he may try his powder and gun before action. 
And that every particular company may have a 
barrel of powder to themselves, and so marked 
that it may by no means be changed; that men 
may know before hand, and may not be cheated 
out of their lives, by having bad powder; or not 
knowing how to use it. This will prove a great 
advantage to the action. 

6thly, That Col. John Gorham, if he may be 
prevailed with, may be concerned in the manage 
ment of the whale-boats, he having been formerly 
concerned in the eastern parts, and experienced 
in that affair. And whale-men will be very ser 
viceable in this expedition, which having a prom 
ise made to them, that they shall be released in 
good season, to go a whaling in the fall, your 
Excellency will have men enough. 

Tthly, That there may be raised for this ser 
vice three hundred Indians at least, and more if 
they may be had; for I know certainly of my own 
knowledge, that they exceed most of our English 
in hunting and skulking in the woods, being al 
ways used to it; and it must be practised if ever 
we intend to destroy those Indian enemies. 

Sthly, That the soldiers already out eastward 
in the service, men of known judgment, may take 
a survey of them and their arms; and see if their 
arms be good, and that they know how to use 
them, in shooting right at a mark; and that they 
be men of good reason and sence, to know how 
to manage themselves in so difficult a piece of ser 
vice, as this Indian hunting is; for bad men are 
but a clogg and hindrance to an army, being a 


trouble and vexation to good commanders, and so 
many mouths to devour the country s provision, 
and a hindrance to all good action. 

9thly, That special care be had in taking up 
the whale-boats, that they be good and fit for that 
service ; so that the country be not cheated, as 
formerly, in having rotten boats ; and as much 
care that the owners may have good satisfaction 
for them. 

lOthly, That the tenders or transports, vessels 
to be improved in this action, be good decked 
vessels, not too big, because of going up several 
rivers; having four or six small guns apiece for 4 
defence, and the fewer men will defend them; and 
there are enough such vessels to be had. 

llthly, To conclude all, if your Excellency 
will be pleased to make yourself great, and us a 
happy people, as to the destroying of our enemies, 
and easing of our taxes, &c. be pleased to draw 
forth all those forces now in pay in all the eastward 
parts, both at Saco and Casco Bay; for those two 
trading houses never did any good, nor ever will, 
and are not worthy the name of Queen s forts; 
and the first building of them had no other ellect 
than to lay us under tribute to that wretched pa 
gan crew, and 1 hope they will never be wanted 
for what they were first built. But sure it is, they 
are very serviceable to them, for they get many a 
good advantage of us to destroy our men, and 
laugh at us for our folly, that we should be at so 
much cost and trouble* to do a thing that does us so 
much harm, and no manner of good. But to the 
contrary, when they see all our forces drawn forth, 
and in the pursuit of them, they will think that 
we begin to be roused up, and to be awakened, 


and will not be satisfied with what they have 
pleased to leave us, but are resolved to retake 
from them what they formerly took from us, and 
drive them out of their country also. The which 
being done, then to build a fort at a suitable time, 
and in a convenient place; and it will be very 
honourable to your Excellency, and of great ser 
vice to her Majesty, and to the enlargement of 
her Majesty s government. The place meant is 
at Port Royal. 

I2thly, That the objection made against draw 
ing off the forces in the eastward parts will be no 
damage to the inhabitants; for former experience 
teaches us, that so soon as drawn into their coun 
try, they will presently forsake ours to take care 
of their own. That there be no failure in mak 
ing preparation of these things aforementioned, 
(for many times the want of small things prevents 
the completing of great actions;) and that every 
thing be in readiness before the forces be raised, 
to prevent charges, and the enemy having intelli 
gence. And that the General Court be moved 
to make suitable acts, for the encouraging both 
English and Indians; that so men of buisness may 
freely offer estates and concerns to serve the 

Thus hoping what I have taken the pains to 
write in the sincerity of my heart and good affec 
tions, will be well accepted; I make bold to sub 
scribe, as I am, your Excellency s most devoted 
humble servant, 


Then returning to his Excellency presented the 
said scheme, which his Excellency approved of ; 


and returned it again to Maj. Church, and desired 
him to see that every thing was provided, telling 
him that he should have an order from the Commis 
sary General to proceed. Then returned home 
and made it his whole business to provide oars and 
paddles, and a vessel to carry them round; and 
then returned again to his Excellency, who gave 
him a commission. Which is as followeth. 

JOSEPH DUDLEY,* Esq. Captain General 
and Governor in Chief in and over her Majes 
ty s Provinces of the Massachusetts-Bay and 
New-Hampshire, in New-England, in Ameri 
ca, and Vice-Admiral of the same. 

To BENJAMIN CHURCH, Esq. Greeting. 
" BY virtue of the power and authority, in and 
by her Majesty s royal commission, to me grant 
ed, I do by these presents, reppsing special trust 
and confidence in your loyalty, courage, and good 
conduct, constitute and appoint you to be Colonel 
of all the forces raised, or to be raised for. her Ma 
jesty s service, against the French and. Indian, ene 
my and rebels, that shall be improved in the ser 
vice to the eastward of Casco Bay; and to be Cap 
tain of the first company of the said forces. You are 
therefore carefully and dilligently to perform the 

* Mr. Dudley was educated- at Harvard College. When 
Sir Edmund Andros was Governor, Mr. Dudley was pres 
ident of the Council and wa s seized upon as belonging to 
his party. He was imprisoned for sometime, and treated 
with inhumanity. King William sent for him to England. 
He embarked Feb. 1689. In 1690, he went over to New- 
York, and was Chief Justice of that province. But he 
never was satisfied any where but in the Chief Magistracy 
of Massachusetts. He was succeeded by Governor Shute, 
1716, and died, 1720. 


duty of a Colonel and Captain by leading, order 
ing and exercising the said regiment and compa 
ny in arms, both inferior officers and soldiers, and 
to keep them in good order and discipline. Here 
by commanding them to obey you as their Colonel 
and Captain ; and with them to do and execute all 
acts of hostility against the said enemy and rebels. 
And you are to observe and follow such orders 
and directions as you shall receive from myself, 
or other your superior officer, according to the 
rules and discipline of war, pursuant to the trust 
reposed in you. Given under my hand and seal 
at arms, at Boston, the 18th day of March, in 
the third year of her Majesty s reign, Anno 
Dom. 1703. 

By his Excellency s command, 


Col. Church no sooner received his commission, 
but proceeded to the raising of men volunteers, 
by going into every town within the three coun 
ties, which were formerly Plymouth government, 
and advising with the chief officer of each com 
pany, to call his company together, that so he 
might have the better opportunity to discourse 
and encourage them to serve their Queen and 
country. Treating them with drink convenient, 
told them he did not doubt but with God s bless 
ing to bring them all home again. All which, 
with many other arguments, animated their 
hearts to do service, so that he enlisted out of 
some companies near twenty men, and others fif 
teen. He having raised a sufficient number of 
English soldiers, proceeded to the enlisting of 


Indians in all those parts where they dwelt, which 
was a great fatigue and expense ; being a people 
that need much treating, especially with drink, 
&c. Having enlisted the most of his soldiers in 
those parts, who daily lay upon him, and were not 
less than 51. per day expences, some days, in vic 
tuals and drink ; who doubtless thought (especial 
ly the English) that the country would have re 
imbursed it again, otherwise they would have 
hardly accepted it of him. Col. Church s sol 
diers both English and Indians in those parts 
being raised, he marched them all down to Nan- 
tasket, according to his Excellency s directions. 
Where being come, the following gentlemen were 
commissioned to be commanders of each particu 
lar company, viz. Lieut. Col. Gorham, Captains 
John Brown, Constant Church, James Cole, 
John Dyer, John Cook, Caleb Williamson and 
Edward Church, of the forces raised by Col. 
Church, each company being filled up with Eng 
lish and Indians as they agreed among themselves, 
and by the Colonel s, directions. Capt. Lamb, 
and Capt. Mirick s company, who were raised 
by his Excellency s direction, were ordered to 
join those aforesaid, under the command of Col. 
Church. Matters being brought thus far on, Col. 
Church waited upon his Excellency at Boston to 
know his pleasure, what further measures were to 
be taken ; and did humbly move that they might 
have liberty in their instructions to make an at 
tack uponVort-Royal. Being very well satisfied 
in his opinion, that with the blessing of God, what 
forces they had or should have ; and whale-boats 
so well tilted with oars and paddles, as they had 
with them, mihfr be sufficient to have taken it. 


His Excellency, looking upon Col. Church, re 
plied, he could not admit of that, by reason of 
the advice of her Majesty s Council, he had to 
write to her Majesty about the taking of Port- 
Royal fort, and how it should be disposed of when 
taken, &,c. However, Col. Church proceeded 
to get every thing ready for the forces down at 
Nantasket, which was the place of parade. He 
happening one day to be at Capt. Belcher s, 
where his Excellency happened to come, was 
pleased to order Colonel Church to put on his 
sword, and walk with him up the common, which 
he readily complied with. Where being come 
he saw two mortar pieces* with shells, and an en 
gineer trying with them, to throw a shell from 
them to any spot of ground where he said it should 
fall. Which, when Col. Church had seen done, 
gave him great encouragement and hopes that it 
would promote their going to Port Royal, which 
he had solicited. Returning from thence, and com 
ing near to Capt. William Clark s house, over 
against the Horse-shoe, his Excellency was in 
vited by Capt. Clark to walk over and take a 
glass of wine, which he was pleased to accept of, 
and took Col. Church with him. And in the 
time they were taking a glass of wine, Col. 
Church once more presumed to say to his Excel 
lency, " Sir, I hope that now we shall go to Poit 
Royal in order to take it; those mortars being 
very suitable for such an enterprise." His Ex 
cellency was pleased to reply ; u Col. Church, 
you must say no more of that matter, for the let 
ter I told you of, I wrote by the advice of her 
Majesty s Council, now lies at home on the board 
before the Lor Js Commissioners of her Majesty s 


foreign plantations/ 5 &c. After seme days 
every thing being ready to embark, Col. Church 
received his instructions, which are as followeth. 

By his Excellency JOSEPH DUDLEY, Esq. Cap 
tain General and Governor in Chief, in and 
over her Majesty s Province of the Massachu 
setts-Bay, &c. in New-England, and Vice-Ad- 
miral of the same. 

in the present expedition. 

" In pursuance of the Commission given to you, 
to take the chief command of the land and sea 
forces by me raised, equipped, and set forth on her 
Majesty s service, against her open declared ene 
mies the French and Indian rebels, you are to 
observe the following instructions. 

" First, you are to take care, that the duties 
of religion be attended to on board the several ves 
sels, and in the several companies under your 
command, by daily prayers unto God, and m.dirg 
his holy word. And that the Lord s day be ob 
served and duly sanctified to the utmost of your 
power, as far as the circumstances and necessity 
of the service can admit, that you may have the 
presence of God with, and obtain his blessing on, 
your undertaking. 

tg You are to to take care, that your soldiers 
have their due allowance of provisions and other 
necessaries; that their arms be well fixed, and kept 
fit for service, and that tin y be furnished with a 
suitable quantity of } o valor and ball, and be al 
ways in readiness to pass upon duty. 


" That good order and discipline be maintained, 
and all disorders, drunkenness, profane swearing, 
iursing, omission or neglect of duty, disobedience 
to officers, mutiny, desertion, and sedition be duly 
punished according to the rules and articles of \\;i; 
Ihe which you are once a month, or oftener, to 
3ause to be published, and made known to your 
)fficers and soldiers for their observance and fit- 
Section in their duty. Lit notorious and capital 
offenders be sent away to the next garrisons, th> 
;o be imprisoned until they can be proceeded v* 

u Let the sick and wounded be carefully looked 
ifter, and accommodated after the best manner 
four circumstances will admit of, and be sent ei- 
her to Casco-Fort, or to Mr. Peperel s at Kitte- 
j-y,* which may be the easier, so soon as you can. 

" You are forthwith to send away the forces and 
ptores by the transports, with the whale-boats to 
Piscataqua, ou Kittery side, there to attend your 
joining; whither you are to follow them with all 

" You are to embark in the Province-Galley, 
2apt. Southack,f commander, and let Lieut. Co!.. 
.G-orham go on board Capt. Gallop; who are both 
Directed to attend your motion on the French sid<-, 
ifter which they are to return. Let the com 
manders of all the store sloops and transports know 
,hat they sail, anchor, and serve at your discretion. 

" When you sail from Piscataqua, keep at such 
listance off the shore, that you be not observed 
)y the enemy to alarm them. Stop at Montini- 
ms, and there embark the forces in the whale- 

* Nearly opposite, Portsmouth, N. H. 
t Reported as a man of great personal courage, but not 
dequate to any considerable command. 


boats for the main, to range that part of the coun 
try in search of the enemy, to Mount-Desart, 
sending the vessels to meet you there; and after 
having refreshed and recruited your soldiers, pro 
ceed to Machias, and from thence to Passame- 
quado;* and having effected what spoils you pos 
sibly may upon the enemy in those parts, embark 
on your vessels for Menis and Signecto,f to Port 
ll>yd gut Use all possible methods for the 
burning and destroying of the enemy s houses, 
rmd breaking the darns of their corn grounds in 
the said several places, and make what other Spoils 
you can upon them, and bring away the prisoners. 
In your return call at Penobscot, and do what 
you can there, and so proceed westward. 

u This will probably employ you a month or six 
weeks; when you will draw together again, and by 
the latter end of June consider whether you can 
inarch to Norrigewack,J or other pai A ts of their 
planting, to destroy their corn and settlements, 
and keep the expedition on foot until the middle 
of August next. 

" Notwithstanding the particularity of the afore 
going instruction, I lay you under no restraint, be 
cause I am well assured of your courage, care, 
caution and industry; but refer you to your own 
resolves, by the advice of your Commissioned Of 
ficers, not under the degree of Captains, and the 
sea Commissioned Captains, whom you will, as 
often as you can, advise with, according to the in 
telligence you may receive, or as you may find 
needful upon the spot. 

" You are, by every opportunity, and once a 
Vv -<>ek certainly, by some means, either by the way 

* Passioiaquady. | Chi^necto. * Norridgewock. 


f Casco, Piscataqua, or otherwise to acquaint 
ne of your proceedings, and all occurrences, and 
vhat may be further necessary for the service. 
!lnd to observe such further and other instructions 
is you shall receive from myself. 

" As often as you may, advise with Capt. Smith 
ind Capt. Rogers, Commanders of her Majesty s 

" Let your Minister, Commissary and Surgeons 
je treated with just respects. I pray to God to 
reserve, prosper and succeed you. 

" Given under my hand at Boston, the fourth 
lay of May, 1704 " J. DUDLEY." 

Pursuant to his instructions lie sent away his 
ransports and forces to Piscataqua, but was oblig- 
id himself to wait upon his Excellency by land to 
Piscataqua, in order to raise more forces in the 
vay thither; and did raise a company under the 
jommand of Capt. Harridon. Took care also to 
)rovide a pilot for them in the Bay of Fundy, 

Jol. Church being directed to one Fellows, 

rvhom he met with at Ipswich. And going from 
hence to Piscataqua with his Excellency, was 
net by that worthy gentleman Maj. Winthrop 
Hilton,* who was very helpful to him in the whole 
expedition, whose name and memory ought not to 
DC forgotten. Being ready to embark from Pis- 
3ataqua; Col. Church requested the Commanders 

* Afterwards Col. Hilton. He is mentioned by other 
writers, as a " meritorious citizen." He had been success- 
ul in capturing Indians, and like Maj. Waldron, was doom- 
Mi to fall by savage hands. In 1710, Col. Hilton with two 
thers, were am bashed and killed by Indians in Exeter,- 



cf her Majesty s ships, Oapt. Smith and Capt. 
Rogers, to tarry at Piseataqua a fortnight, that so 
Ibe.y might noi be discovered by the enemy before 
he had done some spoil upon them. Then moving 
in their transports, as directed, got safe into Mon- 
t<nieus, undiscovered by the enemy. Next morn 
ing early fitted out two whale-boats with men, 
Capt. John Cook in one, and Capt. Constant 
Church in the other, and sent them to Green-Isl 
and, upon a discovery. And coming there they 
parted, one went to one part, and the other to 
another part, that so they might not miss of what 
could be discovered. Here they met with old 
Ij i fan re with his two son?, Thomas and Timothy, 
rnd a Canada Indian. The enemy seeing that 
t uy were discovered, threw down their ducks and 
tg^s, Laving got a considerable quantity of each, 
arid ran to their canoes, got into them, and stood 
directly for the Main. Looking behind them, 
perceived the whale-boats to gain so fast upon 
them, clapt side by side, and all four got into one 
canoe, which proved of little advantage to them, 
for the whale-boats gained so much upon them, 
and got so near that Capt. Cook, firing at the 
steerVman, which was the Indian, and happened 
to graze his skull, and quite spoiled his paddling. 
\Jpon which old jLafaure and sons, seeing their 
companion s condition, soon begged for quarter, 
and had it granted. The two Captains with their 
success presently returned to their Commander, 
taking care that their captives should not discourse 
together before they were examined; when brought 
to Col. Church, he ordered them to be apart, and 
first proceeded to examine old Lafaure, whom he 
found to be very surly and cross, so that he cjuid 


gain no manner of intelligence by him. .Upon 
which the Commander was resolved to put in prac 
tice what he had formerly done at Senecto. Or 
dering the Indians to make two large heaps of 
dry wood, at some distance one from the other, 
arid to set a large stake in the ground, close to 
each heap; then ordered the two sons, Thomas 
and Timothy, to be brought, and to be bound to 
the stakes; also ordering his Indians to paint them 
selves with colours, which they had brought for 
that use. Then the Colonel proceeded to exam 
ine first Timothy, and told him, he had examined 
his father already, and that if he told him the 
truth he would save his life, and take him into his 
service, and that he should have good pay and 
live well. He answered, that he would tell him 
the truth, and gave him an account of every thing 
he knew, which was all minuted down. He be 
ing asked whether his brother Thomas did not 
know more than he ? his answer was, Yes, for 
his brother Thomas had a Commission sent him 
from the Governor of Canada, to command a com 
pany of Indians, who were gathered together at a 
place where some French gentlemen lately arriv 
ed from Canada, who were Officers to command 
the rest that were to go westward to fight the 
English, and that there was sent to his father and 
brother Tom, a considerable quantity of flower, 
fruit, ammunition and stores, for the supply of the 
said army. He being asked, whether he could 
pilot our forces to them? said No; but his broth 
er Tom could, for he had hid it, and that he was 
not then with him. The Colonel asked him, what 
gentlemen those were that came from Canada? 
HJ answered Monsieur Gourdan, and Mr. Shar- 


kee. B^-ing asked where they were? answered, 
at Passamequado, building a fort. Being asked 
what number of Indians and French there were 
at Penobscot ? he answered, there were several 
families, but they lived scattering. Asked him 
further, if he would pilot our forces thither? An 
swered, he would if the Commander would not let 
the savages roast him. Upon which the Colonel 
ordered him to be loosed from the stake, and took 
him by the hand, told him, he would be as kind to 
him as his own father; at which he seemed to be 
very thankful. And then the Colonel proceeded 
to examine his brother Tom, and told him that he 
had examined his father and brother, and that his 
brother had told him every tittle he knew, and 
that he knew more than his brother Timothy did; 
and that if he would be ingenuous and confess all 
he knew, he should fare as well as his brother; 
but if not, the savages should roast him. Where 
upon he solemnly promised that he would, and 
that he would pilot him to every thing he knew, 
to the value of a knife and sheath, which without 
doubt he did. Then the Colonel immediately 
gave orders for the whale-boats to be ready, and 
went directly over where the said goods and stores 
were, and found them as informed, took them on 
board the boats, and returned to their transports. 
And ordering provisions to be put into every man s 
knapsack for six or eight days, in the dusk of the 
evening left their transports, with orders how they 
should act. Then went directly for the main land 
of Penobscot, and mouth of that river, with their 
pilots Tom and Timothy, who carried them direct 
ly to every place and habitation, both of French 
and Indians thereabouts, with the assistance of 


one De Young, whom they carried out of Boston 
gaol for the same purpose, and he was very ser 
viceable to them. Beinsr there we killed and 


took every on 3, both French and Indians, not 
knowing that any one did escape in all Penobscot 
Among those that were taken was St. Casteen s 
daughter, who said that her husband was gone to 
France, to her father Monsieur Casteen. She 
having her children with her, the Commander was 
very kind to her and them. All the prisoners 
that were then taken, held to one story in general, 
which they had from Lafaure s sons. That there 
were no more Indians thereabouts, but enough of 
them at Passamequado; upon which they soon re 
turned to the transports with their prisoners and 
plunder. The Commander giving order immedi 
ately for the soldiers in the whale-boats to have a 
recruit of provisions for a further pursuit of the 
enemy, giving orders to the transports to stay a 
few days more there, and then go to Mount-Des- 
art, and there to stay for her Majesty s ships, who 
were directed to come thither, and wait his further 
order. Then Col. Church with his forces iime>- 
diately embarked on board their whale-boats, and 
proceeded to scour the coast, and to try if they 
could discover any of the enemy coming from Pas 
samequado; making their stops in the daytime at 
all the points and places were they where certain 
the enemy would land, or come by with their ca 
noes, and at night to their paddles. Then com 
ing near where the vessels were ordered to come, 
having made no discovery of the enemy, went di 
rectly to Mount-Desart, where the transports were 
just come; arid taking some provisions for his sol 
diers, gave direction for the ships and transports 


in six days to come directly to Passamequado, 
where they should find him and his forces. Then 
immediately moved away in the whale-boats, and 
made diligent search along shore, as formerly, in 
specting all places where the enemy were likely 
to lurk , particularly at Muchias; but found nei 
ther fires nor tracks. Coming afterwards to the 
west harbour at Passamequado, where they enter 
ed upon action; an account whereof Col. Church 
did communicate to his Excellency, being as 


t; I receivec) yours of this instant, 
October 9th, with the two inclosed informations, 
that concern my actions at Passamequado, which 
I will give a just and true account of as near as 
I possibly can, viz. on the 7th of June last, 1704. 
In the evening we entered in at the westward har- 
b;>ur at said Passamequado ; coming up said har 
bour to an island, where landing, we came to a 
French house and took a French woman and 
children, the woman upon her examination said, 
her husband was abroad a fishing. I asked her 
whether there were any Indians thereabouts 1 
She said yes ; there were a great many, and sev 
eral on that island. I asked her, whether she 
could pilot me to them ? Said no ; they hid in 
the woods. I asked her when she saw them ? 
Answered, just now, or a little while since. I 
asked her whether she knew where they had laid 
the canoes ? She answered, . No ; they carried 
their canoes into the woods with them. We then 
hastened away along shore, seizing what prison 
ers we could, taking old Lotriel and his family. 


This intelligence caused me to leave Col. Gor- 
ham, and a considerable part of my men, and 
boats, with him at that island, partly to guard and 
secure those prisoners, being sensible it would be 
a great trouble to have them to secure and guard 
at our next landing, where I did really expect, 
and hoped to have an opportunity to fight our In 
dian enemies. For all our French prisoners that 
we had taken at Penobscot, and along shore, had 
informed us, that when we came to the place 
where these Canada gentlemen lived, we should 
certainly meet with the savages to fight us. (Those 
being the only men that set the Indians against 
us, or upon us, and were newly come from Cana 
da, to manage the war against us,) pleading in 
this account and information their own innocency, 
and partly in hopes that he, the said Col. Gorham 
would have a good opportunity in the morning to 
destroy some of those our enemies, (we were in 
formed by the said French woman as above) with 
the use of his boats, as I had given direction. Or 
dering also Maj. Hilton to pass over to the next 
island, that lay east of us, with a small party of 
men and boats, to surprise and destroy any of the 
enemy that in their canoes might go here and 
there, from any place, to make their flight from 
us, and as he had opportunity, to take any French 
prisoners. We then immediately moved up the 
river, in the dark night, through great difficulty, 
by reason of the eddies and whirlpools, made with 
the fierceness of the current. And here it may 
be hinted, that we had information that Lotriel 
had lost part of his family passing over to the next 
island, falling into one of those eddies were 
drowned, which the two pilots told to -discourage 


me. But I said " nothing of that nature shall 
do it ; 55 for I was resolved to venture up, and 
therefore forthwith paddling our boats as privately 
as we could, and with as much expedition as we 
could make with our paddles, and the help of a 
strong tide, we came up to Monsieur Gourdan s 
a little before day. Where taking notice of the 
shore, and finding it somewhat open and clear, I 
ordered Capt. Mirick and Capt. Cole, having 
English companies, to tarry with several of the 
boats, to be ready, that if any of the enemy should 
come down out of the brush into the bay, (it being 
very broad in that place) with their canoes, that 
they might take and destroy them. Ordering the 
remainder of the army, being landed, with my 
self and the other officers to march up into the 
woods, with a wide front, and to keep at a consid 
erable distance ; for that if they should run in 
heaps the enemy would have the greater advan 
tage. And further directing them, that, if possi 
ble, they should destroy the enemy with their 
hatchets, and not fire a gun. This order I al 
ways gave at landing, telling them the inconven- 
iency of firing, in that it might be, first dangerous 
to themselves ; they being many of them young 
soldiers. (As I had some time observed, that one 
or two guns being fired, many others would fire, 
at they knew not what ; as happened presently af 
ter.) And it would alarm the enemy, and give 
them the opportunity to make their escape ; and 
it might alarm the whole country, and also pre 
vent all further action from taking effect. Orders 
being thus passed, we moved directly towards the 
woods. Lc Paver s son directing us to a little 
hut or wigwam, wljich we immediately surround- 


ed with a few men, the rest marching directly up 

into the woods, to see what wigwams or huts they 

could discover. Myself made a little stop, order 

ing the pilot to tell them in the hut, that they 

were surrounded with an army, and that if they 

would come forth, and surrender themselves, they 

should have good quarter, but if not, they should 

all be knocked on the head and die. One of them 

showed himself. I asked who he was ? He said 

Gourdan; and begged for quarter. I told him, 

he should have good quarter ; adding further, 

mat if there were any more in the house, they 

should come out. Then came out two men ; 

Gourdan said they were his sons, and asked quar- 

;teribr them, which was also granted. Thee 

:came out a woman and a little boy ; she fell up- 

ion her knees, begged quarter for herself and 

children, and that I would not suffer the Indians 

to kill them. I told them they should have good 

quarter, and not be hurt. After which I order 

ed a small guard over them, and so moved pre 

sently up, with the rest of my company, after 

them that were gone before ; but looking on my 

right hand, over a little run, I saw something 

look black just by me, stopped ; and heard a talk 

ing ; stepped over, and saw a little hut or wigwam 

with a crowd of people round about it, which was 

co irary to my former directions ; asked them 

what they were doing ? They replied, there 

were some of the enemy in a house, and would 

: not come out. I asked, what house 1 They said, 

a bark house. I hastily bid them pull it down, 

and knock them on the head, never asking whether 

they were French or Indians ; they bein^ all ene- 



tnies alike to me.* and passing then to them, and 
seeing them in great disorder, so many of the ar 
my in a crowd together, acting so contrary to my 
command and direction, exposing themselves, and 
the whole army to utter ruin, by their so disor 
derly crowding thick together. Had an enemy 
come upon them in that interim, and fired a vol 
ley among them, they could not have missed a 
single shot. And wholly neglecting their duty, 
in not attending my orders, in searching diligently 
for our lurking enemies in their wigwams, or by 
their fires, where I had great hopes and real ex 
pectations to meet with them. 

I most certainly know that I was in an exceed 
ing great passion, but not with those poor misera 
ble enemies ; for I took no notice of half a dozen 
of the enemy, when at the same time, I expected 
to be engaged with some hundreds of them, of 
whom we had a continued account, who were ex 
pected from Port-Royal side. In the beat of ac 
tion, every word that 1 then spoke, I cannot give 
an account of, and I presume it is impossible. I 
stopped but little here, but went direclly up into 
the woods, hoping to be better employed, ^ith 
the rest of the army. I listened to hear and look 
ed earnestly to see what might be the next action; 
but meeting with many of the soldiers, they told 
me they discovered nothing. We fetching a small 
compass round, came down again. It being pret 
ty dark, I took notice, I saw two men lying dead, 
as 1 thought, at the end of the house where the 

* The Colonel was accused of taking; a rash step at this 
-time. Seeing his men off their guard it is probable he did 
not consider, being in the heat of passion, as he afterwards 


door was, and immediately the guns went off, and 
they fired, every man, as I thought, and most to 
wards that place where I left the guard with Mon 
sieur Gourdan. I had much ado to stop their 
firing, and told them I thought they were mad, 
and 1 believed they had not killed and wounded 
less than forty or fifty of our own men. And I 
asked them what they shot at ? They answered, 
at a Frenchman that ran away. Bat to admira 
tion no man was killed, but him, and one of our 
men wounded in the leg. And I turning about, 
a Frenchman spoke to ma, and 1 gave him quar 
ter. Day-light coming on, and no discovery mads 
of the enemy, I went to the place where I hud 
left Monsieur Gourdan, to examine him and his 
sons, who agreed in their examinations. To d 
me two of their men were abroad. It proved a 
damage ; and further told me, that Monsieur 
Sharkee lived several leagues up, at the head of 
the river, at the falls, and all the Indians were 
fishing, and tending their corn there ; and that 
Monsieur Sharkee had sent down to him to come 
up to him, to advise about the Indian army, that 
was to go westward ; but he had returned him 
answer, his business was urgent, and he could not 
come up ; and that Sharkee, arid the Indians 
would certainly be down that day, or the next at 
farthest, to come to conclude of that matter. This 
was a short night s action, and all sensible men 
do well know, that actions done in the dark (being 
in the night as aforesaid) so many difficulties 
as w e then laboured under, as before related, 
was a very hard task for one man, matters being; 
circumstanced as in this action ; which would noV 

32 WAR \\1TH THE 

.admit of calling a council, and at that time could 
not be confined thereunto. At which time I was 
transported above fear, or any sort of dread ; yet f 
being sensible of the danger in my army s crowd 
ing so thick together, and of the great duty in 
cumbent on ine, to preserve them from all the 
danger I possibly could, for farther improvement, 
in the destruction of our implacable enemies ; am 
ready to conclude, that I was very quick and ab 
solute in giving such commands and orders, as I 
then apprehended most proper and advantageous. 
And had it not been for the intelligence I had re 
ceived from the French we took at Fenobscot, as 
before hinted, and the false report the French wo 
man (first taken) gave me, I had not been in such 
haste. I questioned not but those Frenchmen 
that were slain, had the same good quarter of 
other prisoners. But I ever looked upon it a 
good providence of Almighty God, that some 
few of our cruel and Bloody enemies were made 
sensible of their bloody cruelties, perpetrated on 
my dear and loving friends and countrymen. And 
that the same measure (in part) meeted to them, 
as they had been guilty of in a barbarous manner 
at Deerfield, arid I hope justly. I hope God Al 
mighty will accept hereof, although it may not be 
eligible to our French implacable enemies, and 
such others as are not our friends. The foregoing 
journal, and this short annexrnent, I thought it 
my duty to exhibit, for the satisfaction of my 
friends and countrymen, whom I very faithfully 
and willingly served in the late expedition ; and I 
hope will find acceptance with your Excellency, 
ihe honourable Council and Representatives now 
assembled, as being done from the zeal I had in 


the said service of her Majesty, and her good sub 
jects here. 

" I remain your most humble and obedient ser 

This night s service being over, immediately 
Col. Church leaves a sufficient guard with Gour- 
dan, and the other prisoners, moved in some 
whale-boats with the rest, and as they were going 
espied a small thing upon the water, at a great 
distance, which proved to be a birch canoe, with 
two Indians in her. The Colonel presently or 
dered the lightest boat he had, to make the best 
of her way, and cut them off from the shore. But 
the Indians perceiving their design, run their canoe 
ashore and tied. Col. Church fearing they would 
run directly to Sharkee, made all the expedition 
imaginable ; but it being ebb-tide and the water 
low, was obliged to land, and make the best of 
thair way through the wqpds, hoping to intercept 
the Indians, and get to Sharkee s house before 
them, which was two miles from where our forces 
landed. The Colonel being ancient and unwieldy, 
desired Sergeant Edee to run with him, and 
coming to several trees fallen, which he could not 
creep under, or readily get over, would lay his 
breast against the tree, the said Edee turning 
him over, generally had cat-luck, falling on his 
feet, by which means kept ia the front ; and com 
ing near Sharkee s house, discovered some French 
and Indians making a wear* in the river, and pre 
sently discovered the two Indians aforementioned, 
who called to them at work in the river ; told 
them there was an army of English and Indians 

* Or, wier, a rack to catch fish in. 



just by. They immediately left their work and 
ran, endeavouring to get to Sharkee s house, who 
hearing the noise, took his lady and child, and 
ran into the woods. Our men running briskly 
fired and killed one of the Indians, and took the 
rest prisoners. Then going to Sharkee s house 
found a woman and child, to whom they gave 
good quarter. And finding that Madam Sharkee 
had left her silk clothes and fine linen behind her, 
our forces were desirous to have pursued and 
taken her ; but Col. Church forbade them, saying 
he would have her run and suffer, that she might 
be made sensible what hardships our poor people 
had suffered by them, &c. Then proceeded to 
examine the prisoners newly taken, who gave him 
the same account he had before, of the Indians 
being up to the falls, &LC. It being just night, 
prevented our attacking them that night. But 
next morning early they moved up to the falls, 
which were about a mile higher. But doubtless 
the enemy had some intelligence by the two afore 
said Indians, before our forces came, so that they 
all got on the other side of the river, and left 
some of their goods by the water-side, to decoy 
our men, that so they might fire upon them, which 
indeed they effected. But through the good provi 
dence of God never a man of ours was killed, and 
but one slightly wounded. After a short dispute 
Col. Church ordered that every man might take 
what they pleased of the fish which lay bundled 
up, and to burn the rest, which was a great quan 
tity. The enemy seeing what our forces were 
about, and that their stock of fish was destroyed, 
and the season being over for getting any more, 
set up a hideous cry, and so ran all away into the 


woods ; who being all on the other side of the 
river, ours could not follow them. Having done, 
our forces marched down to their boats at Shar- 
kee s. Then took their prisoners, beaver, and 
other plunder which they had gotten, and put it 
into their boats, and went down to Gourdan s 
house, where they had left Lieut. Col. Gorharn, 
and Major Hilton, with part of the forces to guard 
the prisoners, (and kept a good look-out for 
more of the enemy) who, upon the Colonel s re 
turn, gave him an account that they had made no 
discovery of the enemy since he left them, &,c. 
Just then her Majesty s ships and transports ar 
rived. The Commanders of her Majesty s ships 
told Col. Church that they had orders to go di 
rectly for Port-Royal gut, and wait the coming 
of some store-ships, which were expected at Port 
Royal from France. Col. Church advising with 
them, proposed that it was very expedient and 
serviceable to the Crown, that Capt. Southack in 
the Province galley should accompany them, in 
which they did readily acquiesce with him. Upon 
which the Colonel immediately embarked his for 
ces on board the transports, and himself on board 
Capt. Jarvis. Ordering the commissary of the 
stores, the minister, surgeons and pilots all to em 
bark on board the same vessel with him ; order 
ing all the whale-boats to be put on board the 
transports, and then to come to sail. The ships 
standing away for Port-Royal gut, and Colonel 
Church with the transports for Menis. In their 
way the Colonel inquired of their pilot Fel 
lows, what depth of water there was in the creek, 
near fhe town of Menis ? He answered him that 
there was water enough near the town to float the 


vessel they were in, at low water. So when com 
ing near, Col. Church observed a woody island 
between them and the town, so that they run up 
on the back side of the said island, with all their 
transports undiscovered by the enemy, and came 
to anchor. Then the Colonel and all his forces 
embarked in the whale-boats ; it being late in the 
day, moved directly for the town, and in the way 
asked for the pilot, who he expected was in one 
of the boats ; but he had given him the slip, and 
tarried behind. The Colonel not knowing the 
difficulties that might attend their going up to the 
town, immediately sent Lieut. Giles, who could 
speak French, with a flag of truce up to the town, 
with a summons, which was wrote before they 
landed, expecting their surrender ; which is as 
followeth : 

Aboard her Majesty s ship Adventure, near the 
gut of Menis, June 20, 1704. 

An agreement made by the Field Officers com 
manding her Majesty s forces for the present 
expedition against the French enemies, and 
Indian rebels. 


That a declaration or summons be sent 
on shore at Menis and Port-Royal, under a flag 
of truce. Particularly, 

We do declare to you, the many cruelties and 
barbarities that you and the Indians have b u 
guilty of towards us, in laying waste our country 
here in the East, at Casco, and the places adja 
cent. Particularly, the horrid action at Deer- 
field, this last winter, in killing, massacremg, inur- 


tiering and scalping, without giving any notice at 
all, or opportunity to ask quarter at your hands ; 
and after all, carrying the remainder into captivi 
ty in the height of \vinter, of which you killed 
many in the journey, and exposed the rest to the 
hardships of cold and famine, worse than death 
itself; which cruelties we are yet every day ex 
posed unto, and exercised with. 

We do also declare, that we have already made 
some beginnings of killing and scalping some 
Canada men, which we have not been wont to do 
or allow, and are now come with a great number 
of English and Indians, all volunteers, with reso 
lutions to subdue you, and make you sensible of 
your cruelties to us, by treating you after the 
same manner. 

At this time we expect our men of war and 
transport ships to be at Fort-Royal. (We having 
but lately parted with them.) 

In the last place, We do declare to you, That 
inasmuch as some of you have shown kindness to 
our captives, and expressed a love to, and desire 
of being under the English government, we do 
therefore, notwithstanding al this, give you timely 
notice, ard do demand a surrender immediately, 
by the laying down your arms, upon which we 
promise very good quarter ; if not, you must ex 
pect the utmost severity. 

To the Chief Commander of the town of Men is, 
and the inhabitants thereof, and we expect your 
answer positively, within an hour. 




Then moving to the creek, expecting to have 
had water enough for the boats, as the pilot had 
informed them, but found not water enough for a 
canoe ; so were obliged to land, intending to have 
been up to the town before the hour was out, as 
the summons expressed. (For their return was, 
that if our forces would not hurt their estates, 
then they would surrender ; if otherwise intend 
ed, they should fight for them, &,c.) But meeting 
with several creeks near twenty or thirty feet 
deep, which were very muddy and dirty, so that 
the army could not get over them, were obliged 
to return to their boats again, and wait till within 
night before the tide served them. They then 
intended to go up pretty near the town, and not 
to fall-to till morning, being in hopes that the 
banks of the creeks would shelter them from the 
enemy. .But the tide rising so high, exposed them 
all to the enemy, who had the trees and woods to 
befriend them. And so they came, down in the 
night and fired smartly at our forces ; but Col. 
Church being in a pinnace that had a small can 
non placed in the head, ordered it to be charged 
several times, with bullets in small bags, and fired 
at the enemy, which made such a rattling among 
the trees, that caused the enemy to^draw off. And 
by the great providence of Almighty God, not one 
of our forces was hurt that night. I have been 
informed, they had one Indian killed, and some 
others wounded, which was some discouragement 
to the enemy. Next morning, by break of day, 
Col Church ordered all his forces, (and placed 
Maj. Hilton on the right wing,) to run all up, 
driving the enemy before them, who leaving their 
town to our forces, but had carried away the best 


of their goods, which were soon found by our sol 
diers. The bulk of the enemy happening to lie 
against our right wing, caused the hottest dispute 
there, who lay behind logs and trees, till our for 
ces, and Maj. Hilton, who led them, came upon 
them, and forced them to run. Notwithstanding 
the sharp firing of the enemy at our forces, by the 
repeated providence of God, there was not a man 
of ours killed or wounded. 

Our soldiers not having been long in town, be 
fore they found considerable quantities of strong 
drink, both brandy and claret; and being very 
greedy after it, especially the Indians, were very 
disorderly, firing at every pig, turkey or fowl they 
saw, of which were very plenty in the town, which 
endangered our own men. The Colonel perceiv 
ing the disorder, and firing of his own men, ran 
to put a stop to it, had several shot come very 
near him. And finding what had occasioned this 
disorder, commanded bis officers to knock out the 
heads of every cask of strong liquor they could find 
in the town, to prevent any further disturbance 
among his army; knowing it was impossible to 
have kept it from them, especially the Indians, if 
it were saved. Then some of the army, who were 
desirous to pursue the enemy, having heard thena 
driving away their cattle, requested the Colonel to 
let them go, who did; and gave them their orders. 
Capt. Cook and Capt. Church to lead the two 
wings, and Lieut. Barker, who led the Colonel s 
company, in the centre. And the said Capt. 
Cook, and Capt. Church desired Lieut. Barker 
not to move too fast; so that he might have the 
benefit of their assistance, if he had occasion. But 
the said Lieutenant not being so careful as he 



should have been, or at least was too eager, was 
shot down, and another man, which were all the 
men that were killed in the whole expedition. 
Towards night Col. Church ordered some of his 
forces to pull down some of the houses, and others 
to get logs and make a fortification for his whole 
army to lodge in that night, so, that they might be 
together. And just before night ordered some of 
his men to go and see if there were any men in 
any of the houses in town; if not, to set them all 
on lire; which was done, and the whole town seem 
ed to be on fire all at once. The next morning 
the Colonel gave orders to his men to dig down 
the dams and let the tide in, to destroy all their 
corn, and every thing that was good, according to 
his instructions; and to burn the fortifications 
which they had built the day before. And when 
the tide served to put all their plunder which they 
had got into the boats. Then ordering his sol 
diers to march at a good distance one from ano 
ther; which caused the enemy to think that there 
were no less than a thousand men, as they said af 
terwards, and that their burning of the fortification 
and doing as they did, caused the enemy to think 
that they were gone clear off, and not to return 
again. But it proved to the contrary, for the Co 
lonel and his forces only went aboard their trans 
ports, and there staid till the tide served; and in 
the night embarked on boadr their whale-boats, and 
landed some of his men. Expecting they might 
meet with some of the enemy mending their dams, 
which they did, and with their boats went up ano 
ther branch of the river, to another town or vil 
lage, upon such a surprise, that they took as many 
prisoners as they could desire. And it happened 


that Col. Church was at the French Captain s 
house when two gentlemen came post from the 
Governor of Port-Royal who was the chief Com 
mander at Menis, with an express to send away 
two companies of men to defend the King s fort 
there, and to give him an account, that there were 
three English men of war come into Port-Royal 
gut or harbour; and that the men sent for must 
be posted away with all speed. Col. Church, as 
was said before, being there, treated the two gen 
tlemen very handsomely, and told them he would 
send them back again post to their master upon 
his business; and bid them give him his hearty 
thanks for sending him such good news, that part 
of his fleet was in so good a harbour. Then read 
ing the summons to them that he had sent to Me 
nis, further added, that their Master, the Gover 
nor of Port-Royal, must immediately send away a 
post to the Governor of Canada, at Quebec, to 
prevent his further sending of his cruel and bloody 
French and savages, as he had done lately upon 
Deerfield, where they had committed such horrible 
and bloody outrages upon those poor people, that 
never did them any harm, as is intolerable to think 
of ; and that for the future, if any such hostilities 
were made upon our frontier towns, or any of 
them, he would come out with a thousand savages 
and whale-boats convenient, and turn his back 
upon them, and let his savages scalp and roast the 
French; or at least treat them as their savages 
had treated ours. Also gave them an account of 
part of that action at Passamequado, and how 
now that his soldiers had killed and scalped some 
Canada men there, and would be glad to serve 
them so too, if he would permit them, which ter- 


rifled them very much.* The two French gen 
tlemen that came post made solemn promises that 
they would punctually do the Colonel s message 
to their Governor. So with the desire of the 
French people there, that the Governor might 
have this intelligence, Col. Church dismissed them, 
and sent them away. Telling the same story to 
several of the prisoners, and what they must ex 
pect if some speedy course was not taken to pre 
vent further outrages upon the English. The 
number of prisoners then present, which were con 
siderable, did unanimously entreat of Col. Church, 
that he would take them under the protection of 
the crown of England; making great promises of 
their fidelity to the same, begging with great ago- 
ay of spirit, to save their lives, and to protect them 
from his savages, whom they extremely dreaded. 
As to the savages, he told them, it would be just 
retaliation for him to permit his savages to treat 
the French in the same manner, as the French 
with their savages treated our friends in our fron 
tier towns. But as to his taking them under the 
protection of the crown of England, he utterly re- 
fused it, urging to them their former perfidious- 
ness. They also urging that it would be imposi- 
ble for any French to live any where in the Bay 
of Fundy, if they were not taken under the Eng 
lish government; for with the benefit of the whale- 
boats, as the English called them, they could 
take and destroy all their people in the town of 
Menis, in one night. But he replied to them, it 
should never be. Alleging to them that when 

* This, the Commander of Port -Royal, says a certain 
author, "must know to be a gasconade." 


they were so before, when Port-Royal was taken 
last by the English, that it proved of very ill con 
sequence to the crown of England, and the sub 
jects thereof in our frontiers. For that our Eng 
lish traders supplying them, enabled them to sup 
ply the Indians, our bloody enemies. And there 
fore, he could make no other terms of peace with 
them than that; if the French at Menis, Signecto 
and Canada, w 7 ould keep at home with their bloody 
savages, and not commit any hostilities upon any 
of our frontiers, we would return home and leave 
them; for that we lived at a great distance off, 
and had not come near them to hurt them now, 
had not the blood of our poor friends and brethren 
in all the frontiers of our province, cried for ven 
geance. Especially that late unheard of barbarity 
committed upon the town of Deerfield, which 
wrought so generally on the hearts of our people, 
that our forces came out with that unanimity of 
spirit, both among the English and our savages, 
that we had not, nor needed a pressed man among 
them. The Colonel also telling them, that if ever 
hereafter any of our frontiers, East or West were 
molested by them, as formerly, that he would if 
God spared his life, and they might depend upon 
it, return upon them with a thousand of his sava 
ges, if he wanted them, all volunteers, with our 
whale-boats, and would pursue them to the last 
extremity. The Colonel s warm discourse with 
them wrought such a consternation in them, which 
they discovered by their panic fears and trembling, 
their hearts sensibly beating, and rising up, as it 
were, ready to choke them; confessed tircy were 
all his prisoners, and begged of him, for Jesus 
to save their lives, and the lives of their poor 


families; with such melting terms, as wrought re- 
huntings in the Colonel s breast toward them. 
But however, he told them, that his intent was to 
carry as many prisoners home as he could, but 
that he had taken so many, they were more than 
he .had occasion for, nor desired any more; and 
therefore he would Jeave them. The Colonel re 
solved the next day to complete all his actions at 
Menis, and so draw off. Accordingly he sent his 
orders to Col. Gorham, and Maj. Hilton, with all 
the English companies both officers and soldiers, 
except some few, which he thought he might have 
occasion for to go with the Indians in the whale- 
boats up the eastward river, where a third part of 
the inhabitants lived, that so he might prevent any 
reflection made on them, in leaving any part of 
the service undone. And therefore in the even 
ing ordered ail the whale-boats to be laid ready 
for the night s service. And accordingly when 
Ihe tide served, he went with his Indians up the 
river, where they did some spoil upon the enemy 
going up. In the morning several of their trans 
ports came to meet them, to their great rejoicing, 
of \vhom they went on board, and soon came up 
with the whole fleet, with whom they joined, bend 
ing their course directly towards Port-Royal, 
where they were ordered. Coming to Port-Royal 
gut, where their ships were, and calling a coun 
cil according to his instructions, drew up their re 
sult. Which is as followeth. 


Present all the Field Officers and Captains of the 

land forces. 
Aboard the Province Galley, 4th July, 1704, in 

Port-Royal harbour. 

WE whose names are hereunto subscribed, hav 
ing deliberately considered the cause in hand, 
whether it be proper to land all ou^ forces, to of 
fend and destroy as much as we can at Port-Royal, 
all or any part of the inhabitants thereof, and 
their estates. We are of opinion, that it is not 
for our interest and honour, and the country s 
whom we serve, to land or expose ourselves, but 
quit it wholly, and go on about our other business 
we have to do, for this reason, that we judge our 
selves inferiour to the strength of the enemy ; and 
therefore, the danger and risk we run, is greater 
than the advantage we can, or are likely to obtain; 
seeing the enemy hath such timely notice, and 
long opportunity to provide themselves against us, 
by our ships lying here in the road about twelve, 
days, before we could join them from Menis, where 
we were during that time, and being so very mean 
ly provided with necessaries convenient for such 
an undertaking, with so small a number of men, 
not being above four hundred capable and fit for 
service to land; and understanding by all the in 
telligence we can get from both English and 
French prisoners, that the fort is exceeding strong. 
JOHN GORHAM, Lieut. Col. 





Having, pursuant to my instructions, taken the 
advice of the gentlemen above subscribed, and 
considering the weight of their reasons, I do con 
cur therewith. BENJAMIN CHURCH. 

WHEREAS Col. Church hath desired our opin 
ions, as to the landing the forces at Port-Royal, 
they being but 400 effective men to land, and by 
all the information both of French and English 
prisoners, the enemy having a greater number of 
men, and much better provided to receive, than 
they are to attack them. We do believe it is for 
the service of the crown, and the preservation of 
her Majesty s subjects to act as above mentioned. 


After this, they concluded what should be next 
done; which was, that the ships should stay some 
days longer at Port-Royal gut, and then go over 
to Mount-Desart harbour, and there stay till Col. 
Church with his transports should come to them. 
Being all ready, the Colonel with his transports 
and forces went up the bay to Signecto, where 
they needed not a pilot, being several of them well 
acquainted there. And they had not met with so 
many difficulties at Menis, had it not been that 
their pilot deceived them, who knew nothing of 
the matter, kept out of the way and landed not 
with them. And coming to Signecto, the enemy 
were all in arms ready to receive them. Col. 
Church landing his men; the Commander of the 
enemy waving his sword over his head, bid a chal 
lenge to them. The Colonel ordering his two 
wings to* march up a pace, and came upon the 


backs of the enemy, himself being in the centre, 
and the enemy knowing him, having been there 
before, shot chiefly at him. But through God s 
goodness he received no harm, neither had he one 
man killed, nor but two slightly wounded, and 
then all ran into the woods, and left their town 
with nothing in it. They having had timely no 
tice of our forces, had carried all away out of the 
reach of our army. Col. Church, while there, 
with part of his forces ranged the woods, but to 
no purpose. Then returning to the town, did 
them what spoil he could, according to his instruc 
tions, and so drew off, and made the best of their 
way for Passamequado. Going in there in a 
great fog, one of their transports ran upon a rock, 
but was soon got off again. Then Col. Church 
with some of his forces embarked in their whale- 
boats, and went among the islands, with an intent 
to go to Sharkee s, where they had destroyed the 
fish; but observing a springy place in a cove, went 
on shore to get some water to drink, it being a 
sandy beach, they espied tracks. The Colonel 
presently ordered his men to scatter, and make 
search. They soon found De Bois 5 * wife, who 
had formerly been Col. Church s prisoner, and 
carried to Boston; but returned, who seemed very 
glad to see him. She had with her, two sons that 
were nearly men grown. The Colonel ordering 
them apart, examined the woman first, who gave 
him this account following; that she had lived 
thereabouts ever since the fleet went by, and that 
she had never seen but two Indians since, who 
came in a canoe from Norrigwoek; who asked her, 

*Dnbois Pronounc ed Duboy. 


what made her to be there alone? She told them, 
she had not seen a Frenchman nor an Indian, ex 
cept those two since the English ships went by. 
Then the Indians told her there was not one In 
dian left except those two, who belong to the gut 
of Canso, on this side of Canada; for those Friars 
coming down with the Indians to M. Gordan s, 
and finding the Frenchmen slain, and their hair 
spoiled, being scalped, put them into a great con 
sternation. And the Friars told them it was im 
possible for them to live thereabouts, for the Eng 
lish with their whale-boats would serve them all 
so. Upon which they all went to Norrigwock. 
Also told her that when the English came along 
through Penobscot, they had swept it of the inhab 
itants, as if it had been swept with a broom, nei 
ther French nor Indians escaping them. Further 
told her, that when their fathers, the Friars, and 
the Indians met together at Norrigwock, they call 
ed a council, and the Friars told the Indians, that 
they must look out for some other country, for 
that it was impossible for them to live there; also 
told them there was a river called Mossippee, 
where they might live quietly, and no English come 
near them; it being as far beyond Canada, as it 
was to it, &LC. and if they would go and live there, 
they would live and die with them; but if not they 
would leave them, and never come near them again. 
Whereupon they all agreed to go away, which 
they did, and left their rough household stuff, and 
corn behind them, and went all, except those two 
for Canada. Also her sons giving the same intel 
ligence, so we had no reason to think but it was 


Col. Church having done what he could there, 
embarked on board the transports, and went to v 
Mount-Desart, found no ships there, but a rundlet 
rode off by a line in the harbour, which he order 
ed to be taken up, and opening of it found a let 
ter, which gave him an account that the ships 
were gone home for Boston. Then he proceeded 
and went to Penobscot. Where being come, 
made diligent search in those parts for the enemy, 
but could not find, or make any discovery of them, 
or that any had been there since he left those parts, 
which caused him to believe what De Bois wife 
had told him was true. 

I will by the way just give a hint of what we 
heard since of the effects of this expedition, and 
then proceed. First, That the English forces 
that went next to Norrigwock, found that the 
enemy were gone, and had left their rough house 
hold stuff and corn behind them. Not long afte 
this expedition, there were several gentlemen sent 
down from Canada, to concert with our Gover 
nor about the settling of a cartile for the exchange 
of prisoners. And that the Governor of Canada 
has never* since sent down an army upon our fron 
tiers, that I know of, except sometimes a scout of 
Indians to take some prisoners, that he might be 
informed of our state, and what we were acting, 
&c. and always took care that the prisoners so 
taken should be civilly treated, and safely returned; 
as I have been informed, some of the prisoners 
that were taken gave such account. So that we 
have great cause to believe that the message Col. 
Church sent by the two French gentlemen from 
Menis, to the Governor of Port-Royal, took ef 
fect, and was a means to bring peace into ouj- 


borders. Then Col. Church with his forces em 
barked on board the transports, and went to Cas- 
co-Bay, where they met with Capt. Gallop, in a 
vessel from Boston, who had brought Col. Church 
further orders, which were to send some of his 
forces up to Norrigwock, in pursuit of the enemy ; 
but he being sensible that the enemy were gone 
from thence, and that his soldiers were much worn 
out, and fatigued in the hard service they had al 
ready done, and wanted to get home, called a 
council, and agreed all to go home, which accor 
dingly they did. 

To conclude this expedition, I will just give a 
hint of some treatment* Col. Church had before 
and after he came home. For all his great ex 
penses, fatigues and hardships, in and about this 
expedition, viz. He received of his Excellency 
fifteen pounds, as an earnest penny, towards rais 
ing volunteers. And after he came to receive his 
debenture for his Colonel s pay, there was two 
shillings and four pence due to him. And as for 
his Captain s pay, and man Jack, he has never 

* It appears from authentic documents, that Church was 
censured wrongfully, and for some time bore the faults due 
only to Gov. Dudley. For it was generally thought by the 
people, that Col. Church went on this expedition for the ex 
press purpose of reducing Port-Royal, not knowing that he 
was expressly ordered to the contrary; therefore, we are not 
surprised that he should be blamed until the fact should be 
known. It appears that nothing hindered the Colonel from 
taking it, but orders. The Governor was accused of pre 
serving Port-Royal to benefit himself by an illegal trade 
with the inhabitants. However this may be, he excused 
himself by saying, he had no orders from the Queen author 
izing its reduction, and that her Majesty was to send over 
in the spring, a force expressly for that purpose. See 
pages 216 and 217. 


recieved any thing as yet. Also after he came 
home, some ill minded persons did their endeav 
our to have taken away his life, for that there 
were some of the French enemy killed,! this ex 
pedition. But his Excellency the Governor, the 
Honourable Council, and House of Representa 
tives saw cause to clear him, and gave him thanks 
for his good service done. 

f See page 229. Some persons in a house who would not 
come out by the request of the soldiers. Also, see NOTE. 
Page 230. 


The following Notes were not prepared in season to be in 
serted in their proper places, but the word or phrase 
after which they should have been placed will readily 
meet the eye on turning to the page he re designated. 


Page 28, after " Capt. Fuller." Capt Fuller 
and Mr. Church were sent together into Pocasset 
neck to make peace with the Indians there, or 
war, as they should be found treatable, or other 
wise. Capt. Fuller parted from Mr. Church, be 
ing weary of hunting without meeting with some 
thing to do, and marched down to the water where 
they found more than they could do, but happen 
ing to get possession of an old house were soon 
taken off by a vessel, and so escaped, as Mr. 
Church did afterward. 


Page 35, " 300 Indians. 59 The battle of the 
Pease Field happened on the 8th July, 1675. 


Page 53, ct Clark s Garrison." On the 12th 
March, 1676, Mr. Clark s house, containing two 
families, in all eleven persons, was destroyed, and 
every one cruelly murdered. Mr. Church calls 




it a garrison, but its strength did not make it so, 
being only a common house, though very good 
for those days. 


Page 54, " Warwick." The 17th March fol 
lowing was burned. Also many other places 
about the Narraganset country. On the 28th of 
the same month, several hundred Indians fell upon 
Rehoboth, and burned about seventy buildings, 
forty of which were houses. On the 29th, Prov 
idence shared the same fate, having thirty houses 
consumed by this motley crew. These were days 
of great gloominess to New-England. The ene 
my s successes about this time, particularly in 
February and March, so elated them, that they 
even threatened Boston itself. They came as 
near as Medfield, and notwithstanding two or 
three hundred soldiers were stationed there, they 
burned down half the town, and killed eighteen of 
the inhabitants. Medfield is twenty miles from 


Page 111, " Howoh." In a note at page 99, 
the authority to alter the spelling of the word 
Jlnnawon, is questioned; the substance of which 
is, that its termination ought to be written won, 
for " we, who never heard the native tongue, can 
not tell, but that they," the Natives, " pronounc 
ed it as if written ivun, allowing this to have been 
the case, it is certainly more proper to write won. 
I now very much question the authority of Dr. 
Morse, notwithstanding his erudition, to write 
Howah, instead of Howoh. It is very evident to 

NOTES. 255 

me from the writings of those days, that the wri 
ter of this history, intended in the termination of 
that word, to convey the sound of oh! and not ah! 
Much more might be said in support of the ancient 
manner of writing this word, but to those who 
wish to preserve antiquity, especially of our own 
country, no further proof, it is thought, will be 
required. It is desirable that these things be aU 
tended to by modern historians, and let posterity 
judge for themselves, as well as we, for ourselves, 
who, no doubt, will think that they are more ca 
pable of judging than we. 


Page 143, " Casco." In the Fort at Casco, 
about 100 persons were besieged for some time, 
and on the 17th of May, 1690, they surrendered. 
For many years the eastern country was in the 
greatest distress, and many flourishing places en 
tirely deserted, others entirely destroyed. 


Page 188, " Pemaqiiid." In 1696, two men 
of war were despatched to take possession of Nova 
Scotia. As they lay in the mouth of the river 
St. Johns, as it afterward appeared, the French 
at Quebeck were fitting out a fleet, on board of 
which v. r ere two companies of soldiers and about 
fifty Micfcmaek Indians, for the taking of the fort 
at Permiquid. Though the French force consist 
ed of but two ships, they were much two heavy 
for the English. Iberville, a brave and experi 
enced commander, conducted the French force. 
When he arrived at St. Johns, Villebon, comman 
der there, informed him of the situation and cir- 


sumstances of the English ships. He immediatly 
was in quest of them, and fell upon them when 
they thought themselves secure. One ship, call 
ed the Newport, after exchanging a few broad 
sides with the enemy, had her topmast shot away, 
and was obliged to surrender. By the sudden ap 
pearance of a fog the other ship escaped, and re 
turned to Boston, bearing the news of their de 
feat. In the mean time the French fleet proceed 
ed upon their expedition with the addition of the 
Newport. At Penobscot, Baron Castine joined 
them, with 200 Indians. The whole force arriv 
ed before the fort at Pemaquid, July the 14th. 
Capt. March, having previously resigned the com 
mand of the fort a short time before, and a Capt. 
Chubb was his successor. He received a sum 
mons from Iberville to surrender. Chubb returned 
for answer, a mere gasconade. Says he, "if the 
sea were covered with French ships, and the land 
with Indians, yet I would not give up the fort." 
The attack was immediately begun by the Indians, 
and the fort answered them with their musketry 
and cannon. The night following Iberville landed 
his cannon and mortars, and the next day, before 
three in the afternoon, had raised his works, and 
planted his mortars, so as to throw five bombs into 
the fort. This so terrified Chubb and the garri 
son in general, that a parley was immediately beat, 
and the fort surrendered. Fifteen pieces of well 
mounted cannon, and ninety able men, which if 
they had been well commanded, would have been 
a match for double that force, now fell into the 
hands of the French. They surrendered on terms, 
that they should be sent to Boston and exchanged 
for the like number of French and Indian prjs- 

NOTES. 157 

oners, and the injunction that the savages should 
be restrained from any violence on them. 

The surrender of the fort appears to have been 
hastened by Castine, who found means to convey 
a letter into the fort, informing them, that if they 
held out, the savages would not be controled, for 
he had seen such orders from the King to Iber- 

Chubb was greatly censured, and put under an 
arrest, but afterward dismissed. It is not proba 
ble that the garrison could have held out until suc 
cour should have arrived, and without doubt they 
considered the longer they should hold out, the 
more enraged the savages would be; therefore, it 
is not unlikely that Capt. Chubb 9 s conduct was at 
first too highly censured. 


Page 50, mention is made of Sudbury. There 
appears no very particular account of the distres 
ses of that place; from what does appear, it seems 
that the Indians were exasperated by the success 
of some Sudbury men, who were engaged in the 
war. About the 17th March, 1676, a small num 
ber of them joined one Lieut. Jacobs, of Marlbo- 
rough, another suffering town, and when about 
half a mile from a garrison house, came upon near 
ly 300 Indians before day, encamped by their fires, 
Notwithstanding the number of the English was 
so small, being but forty in all, they ventured to 
fire upon them; and before the enemy could arouse 
and escape, the English had several well directed 
fires, killing an 1 Wounding nearly fifty. On the 
18th of April, thc-y came, upon Sudbury, and burn 
ed several houses and barns, and killed some of 


158 NOTES. 

the inhabitants. About ten or twelve English on 
their way from Concord, (a place about five miles 
from Sudbury,) to assist their neighbors, were all 
killed near a garrison, by a party of the enemy, 
who had knowledge of their coming. Not long 
before this, one Thomas Eames, that kept a farm 
at Sudbury, but lived about three miles out of 
town, had his house burned, his wife killed, and 
his children carried away into the wilderness. 



Colonel BENJAMIN CHURCH was born in 
1639, at Duxbury, near Plymouth, of respect 
able parents, who lived and died there. His 
father s name was Joseph, who, with two of 
his brethren, came early into New-England, as 
refugees from the religious oppression of the pa 
rent state. Mr. Joseph Church, among other 
children had three sons, Joseph, Caleb and Ben 
jamin. Caleb settled at Watertown; the other 
two at Seconet, or Little Compton. Benjamin, 
the hero of ihis history, was of a good stature, his 
body well proportioned, and built for hardiness 
and activity. Although he was very corpulent 
and heavy in the latter part of his life, yet when 
he was a young man he was not so, being then ac 
tive, sprightly and vigorous. He carried dignity 
in his countenance, thought and acted with ra 
tional and manly judgment, which, joined with a 
naturally generous, obliging and hospitable dispo 
sition, procured him both authority and esteem. 
He married Mrs. Alice Southworth, by whom he 
had a daughter, Mrs. Rothbotham, and five sons, 
viz. Thomas Church, the author or publisher of 


this history, and father of the Hon. Thomas 
Church, Esq. now living at Little Compton; Con 
stant Church, a Captain under his father in the 
eastern expedition, and in the militia, and of a 
military and enterprising spirit; Benjamin Church, 
who died a bachelor; Edward Church, whose only 
son, now living, is Deacon Benjamin Church, of 
Boston, who furnishes these memoirs of the fam 
ily; and Charles Church, who had a numerous 
issue. Colonel Church was a man of integrity, 
justice and uprightness, of piety and serious reli 
gion. He was a member of the Church of Bris 
tol at its foundation, in the Rev. Mr. Lee s day. 
He was constant and devout in family worship, 
wherein he read and often expounded the Scrip 
tures to his household. He was exemplary in ob 
serving the Sabbath, and in attending the worship 
and ordinances of God in the sanctuary. He liv 
ed regularly, and left an example worthy of the 
imitation of his posterity. He was a friend to the 
civil and religious liberties of his country, and 
greatly rejoiced in the revolution. He was Colo 
nel of the militia in the county of Bristol. The 
several offices of civil and military trust, with 
which he was invested from time to time, through 
a long life, he discharged with fidelity and useful 
ness. The war of 1675 was the most important 
Indian war that New-England ever saw. Philip 
or Metacomet, (a son of good old Massasoit, and 
his second successor,) had wrought up the Indians 
of all the tribes through New-England, into a 
dangerous combination to extirpate the English. 
It was one of the last works of the Commissioners 
of the United Colonies, (a council which subsist 
ed, the great security of New-England, from 


1643 to 1678,) to break up this confederacy. An 
army of 1000 English was on foot at once, under 
the command of Gov. Winslow. Whoever de 
sires further information concerning this war, may 
consult Mr. Hubbard s* history of it. The part 
Col. Church acted in it is exhibited in this plain 
narrative, given by his son two years before his 
father s death. Col. Church perfectly understood 
the manner of the Indians in fighting, and was 
thoroughly acquainted with their haunts, swamps, 
and places of refuge on the territory between 
Narraganset and Cape Cod. There he was par 
ticularly successful. On that field he gathered 
his laurels. The surprisal and seizure of ANNA* 
WON was an act of true boldness and heroism. 
Had the eastern Indians been surrounded with 
English settlements, there is reason to think he 
would have been more successful among them. 
But on a long and extended frontier, open to irn- 

* Mr William Hubbard, minister of Ipswich. This gen 
tleman, often referred to in the notes attached to this edi 
tion, wrote a very full history of all the Indian wars ii} 
New-England, from the first discovery of the country, to 
the year 1G77; and is the best history of the Indian affairs 
of that period, ever published. As Mr. Hubbard wrote at 
the time of the greatest wars with the Indians, we may na 
turally suppose, that his history is very correct; yet, there 
are but few historians, who write without committing somg 
errors, and we believe Mr. Hubbard s history contains as 
few as any other, on those wars. 

Gov. Hutchinson, in speaking of the character of Mr. 
Hubbard, says, " he was a man of learning, of a candid and 
benevolent mind, accompanied, as it generally is, with a 
good degree of Catholicism; which, I think, was not account 
ed the most valuable part of his character in the age ia* 
which he lived." Vol. ii, p. 136. 

He died Sept. 14th, 1704 4 at the age of 83 years. 


mense desarts, little more has ever been done by 
troops of undaunted courage, than to arouse and 
drive off the Indians into a wide howling wilder 
ness, where it was as much in vain to seek them, 
as for Caesar to seek the Gauls in the Hircinian 

The present edition of this history is given 
without alteration in the body of it; it being 
thought best that it should go down to posterity 
with its own internal marks of originality. How 
ever, in the margin the editor hath given the Eng 
lish names of places described by Indian names 
in the narrative; and also some few notes and 

After Philip s War, Col. Church settled, and 
at first at Bristol, then at Fall River, (Troy,) 
lastly at Seconet; at each of which places he ac 
quired and left a large estate. Having served 
his generation faithfully, by the will of God, he 
fell asleep, and was gathered unto his fathers. 
He died and was buried at Little Compton. The 
morning before his death, he went about two miles 
on horseback, to visit his only sister, Mrs. Irish, 
to sympathise with her on the death of her only 
child. After a friendly and pious visit, in a mov 
ing and affecting manner, he took his leave of her, 
and said, " it was a last farewell; telling her he 
was persuaded he should never see her more; but 
hoped to meet her in heaven.* 5 Returning home 
ward, he had not rode above half a mile, before 
his horse stumbled, and threw him over his head; 
and the Colonel being exceedingly fat and heavy, 
fell with such force that a blood vessel was broken, 
and the blood gushed out of his mouth like a tor 
rent. His wife was soon brought to him. He. 


tried but was unable to speak to her, and died in 
about twelve hours. He was carried to the grave 
with great funeral pomp, and was buried under 
arms, and with military honours. On his tomb 
stone is this inscription : 

Here lieth interred the body 

of the Honourable 

who departed this life 

January the 17th, 1717-18, 

in the 78th year of his age. 

Newport, April 8, 



WITH the fall of the Roman Empire, an age 
of ignorance began. This happened about 447 
years after Christ. And not until the fourteenth 
century, did science and the arts make much ad 
vancement; it was then, that Navigation rose. 
It did not rise alone, the immortal Columbus* rose 

* Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, a province 
of Spain, in the year 1447. He was early discovered to 
possess a strong propensity toward a seafaring life, the oc 
cupation of his ancestors, who were riot unmindful of his 
inclinations, and gave him a suitable education. Like other 
great geniuses he viewed the mathematical and its relative 
sciences, only, as worthy of attention. When he was four 
teen years of age, he commenced going to sea. In 1467, he 
sailed in the service of a relative of his, who was a Captain 
Columbus, and was engaged in a war against the Mahomet 
ans. In this war our Columbus discovered the qualifica 
tions necessary to great undertakings. He was at last un 
fortunate; for in H severe battle the vessel in which he serv 
ed, taking fire, he had the only alternative, to throw him 
self into the sea; and, being a good swimmer, reached the 
shore, although the distance was six miles. He immediate 
ly went to Lisbon, and his abilities being duly appreciated 
there, was taken much notice of among the first class of 
people. Here he married the daughter of a nobleman, who 
had been engaged in adventures of discovery, arid, who fa 
voured him with all his charts, and other papers of great 
Value. It is probable, the descriptions of new countries, 



with it. This great man was a native of Genoa. 
In him we behold the greatest genius, and a mind 
competent to the most daring, and ardent enter 
prises, ever performed by man. 

given him in the journals of his father-in-law, first kindled 
the flame of discovery in his breast; which, in its extent 
and magnitude, has never found a parallel. 

The Portuguese were planning the rout to India hy pass 
ing round the south point of Africa, when Columbus con 
ceived the MIGHTY PLAN, which led to the discovery of 
AMERICA. He first divulged his theory to a Florentine gen 
tleman of great learning, who highly approved the plan, and 
encouraged him to persevere therein. He applied first to 
the government of Genoa for patronage, then to that of 
Portugal, who in order to rob him of the honour which they 
(the latter) thought might accrue, despatched a vessel in 
the same direction pointed out by him; but those to whom 
was committed the performance of his plan, had neither 
courage nor fortitude to venture far upon it. He next ad 
dressed himself to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, while 
he despatched his brother Bartholomew to solicit the aid of 
Henry VII. of England. However, after eight years of 
disappointment and mortifying delays, Isabella was prevail 
ed with, through the influence of the noble Quintaniila and 
Santangel, to second his design. He was on his way to 
England as his last hope, whence the Queen immediately 
had him recalled, and he immediately set out on his first 
voyage of discovery with three small ships, and ninety men. 
After proceeding a while in the then unknown vast Atlantic 
ocean, the magnetic needle was found to vary. This phe 
nomenon appeared strange to Columbus, as well as his men, 
and although he assigned an ingenious reason for it, yet, 
his men looked upon their proceeding, as an encroachment 
on the works of nature, and that her bounds were passed, 
and this was a warning to them to desist from proceeding 
any farther. When they had been about twenty-one days 
on this strarge sea, the crew began to mutiny, and Lad 
formed the design of throwing their Admiral overboard, and 
to return home. He however dispelled their murmurs by 
promising them that he would return in three days, if land 
did not appear; at the end of which time, to their great 
. joy, land was discovered, which proved to be one of the 


In the great plan of the world, which he seem 
ed to comprehend, thought it necessary to the 
equipois of the globe, that there should be more 
land, than was then known. He, therefore, con 
ceived the idea of sailing to the East Indies, by 
steering west. 

Bahama Islands. After visiting many other Islands in that 
quarter, he took his departure homeward. On his passage 
he encountered a dreadful storm, and when all was given 
uc for lost, he retired to his cahin, and wrote an account 
or his voyage upon parchment, sealed it in a cake of wax, 
put it into a tight cask, and threw it into the sea; hoping, 
that by some fortunate circumstance, it might be found. 
But presently the storm ceased, and he arrived at Lisbon, 
having been absent about seven months. The 25th of Sep 
tember, 1493, another armament was got ready for him, 
consisting of seventeen ships, and he again embarked. He 
visited tiie places he discovered before, and made some n-ew 
discoveries. But while he was absent, lying and malicious 
persons brought him into disrepute at home, and on the ar 
rival of his brother Bartholomew, he returned to Spain, in 
1476; where his dignified mien abashed every accuser, and 
the court dismissed him with honour. 

In 1438, he sailed on his third voyage, and after touching 
along the continent some distance, returned to his old col 
ony at Hispaniola, which he found in sedition, but soon 
restored things to order. In the mean time, his enemies 
succeeded Li procuring his arrest, and he was sent home ia 
irons, where he was instantly released by the king, and re 
ceived his usual honours. 

He sailed on a fourth voyage in 1502. On arriving in the 
gulf of Mexico his fleet ericou itered a violent storm and was 
cast on the Island of Jamaica. Here the natives annoyed 
them until Columbus told them of an eclipse, which came to 
pass as he had predicted, and ever after they were treated 
with great respect. At length he was taken off, arid carried 
to Spain, in 1504. Isabella was dead, his only patroness, and 
the king would redress no wrongs he had received. This 
so depressed his spirits, that infirmities come upon him, and 
he died at Yaliadoiid. the 12th of May, 1506, in the 59th 
year of his age. 


After fully digesting in his own mind, this great 
plan, he set about soliciting assistance to put it in 
execution. He was not only discountenanced by 
one court after another, but looked -upon, as " a 
visionary and chimerical projector." 

At length, Ferdinand and Isabella, of Spain, 
lent him their aid. He sailed from Spain in Au 
gust, and on the llth of October following, 1492, 
discovered America, which he considered as a part 
of the continent of Asia, known by the name of 
India. Hence the name of Indians, and West- 
Indies; because they were discovered by sailing 


John and Sebastian Cabot, in the year 1497, 
sailed along the coast of North-America from 
Nova Scotia to Florida, and made a discovery of 
its whole extent. 

In 1602, Bartholomew Gosnold, and Capt. 
John Smith, in 1614, made a particular discovery 
of New-England. Capt. Smith made an accurate 
survey of its coast. 


The first permanent settlement made in North- 
America by the English, was at Jamestown, in 
Virginia, in 1607. From that time settlements 
began to be made all along the coast. 

As it was not the design of this work to give a 
particular account of all the settlements, we pass 
on to that of New-England. 


The cause of Our Forefather s forsaking their 
native country, for this, then dreary and howling 


wilderness, was because they were not permitted 
the free enjoyment of their religious principles. In 
those times of persecution a society fled from Eng 
land into Holland, and not being pleased with the 
manners of the Dutch, whose morals they consid 
ered had a tendency to corrupt those of their chil 
dren, resolved to venture across the vast Atlantic 
Ocean, and seek an Asylum in the West. 

Two small vessels were prepared, and on the 
5th of August, 1620, they put to sea. Jones and 
Reynolds were the names of the two commanders. 

They had not proceeded far, before Capt. Rey 
nolds complained, that his ship w r as so leaky he 
dared not proceed farther, sj both ships returned. 
On being repaired they put to ssa again; and after 
sailing about one hundred leagues, Capt. Reynolds 
again, to their great astonishment, said his ship 
would never perform the voyage, and that he must 
return; so both ships bore away for E igland. On 
searching the ship, very little was found to be the 
matter; the true cause of these delays, as yet not 
being known. But it was afterward found, that 
the Dutch had bribed the said Reynolds to waste 
away the season, and to land them thus far north, 
so late that they could not go to Hudson s river, 
as they first intended. But to proceed, it was 
finally agreed to dismiss the bad ship; which was 
done, and the other to go on the intended voyage, 
which after encountering violent storms, and long 
head winds, arrived on the coast in November. 
And on coming near the land, found it to be Cape 
Cod. They held a council, and resolved to go 
south for Hudson s river. They had not sailed 
long before they found themselves nearly encom 
passed with dangerous shoals; so they bore up 


again for the Cape, and entered the harbour on 
the llth. They immediately sent out a party to 
explore, who fixed upon a place, whither they all 
went, and on the 25th, was begun the first house 
ever built in New-England. The place was call 
ed Plymouth, from the last place they left in 

Proceedings of the Pilgrims for the first three 
months after their arrival, as related by Mr. 
Nathaniel Morton, in his New-England s Me 
morial; being copied verbatim from an old edi 
tion of that work. 

Of the first planters, their combination, by en 
tering into a body politick together; with their 
proceedings in discovery of a place for their 
settlement and habitation. 

Being thus fraudulently dealt with (as you have 
heard) and brought so far to the northward, the 
season being sharp, and no hopes of their obtain 
ing their intended port; and thereby their patent 
being made void and useless, as to another place: 
Being at Cape Cod upon the eleventh day of No 
vember, 1620, it was thought meet for their more 
orderly carrying on of their affairs, and accord 
ingly by mutual consent they entered into a sol 
emn combination, as a body politick, to submit to 
such government and governors, laws and ordinan 
ces, as should by a general consent, from time to 
time, be made choice of, and assented unto. The 
contents whereof folio weth. This was the first 
foundation of the government of New-Plymouth. 

In the name of God, amen. We whose names 
are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread 



sovereign Lord, King James, by the grace of 
God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, 
King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Having under 
taken for the glory of God, and advancement of 
the Christian faith, and the honour of our King 
and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in 
the northern parts of Virginia; do by these pres 
ents solemnly and mutually, in the presence of 
God and one another, covenant and combine our 
selves together into a civil body politick, for our 
better ordering and preservation, and furtherance 
of the ends aforesaid: And by virtue hereof, do 
enact, constitute and frame such just and equal 
laws, ordinances, acts constitutions and officers, 
from time to time, as shall be thought most meet 
and convenient for the general good of the colo 
ny; unto which we promise all due submission 
and obedience. In witness whereof, we have 
hereunto subscribed our names, at Cape Cod, the 
eleventh of November, in the reign of our sove 
reign Lord King James, of England, France and 
Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty- 
fourth, Anno Dom. 1620. 

John Carver, Samuel Fuller, Edward Tilly, 

William Bradford, Christopher Martin John Tilly, 

Edward Winslow, William Mullins, Francis Cooke, 

William Brewster, William White, Thomas Rogers, 

Isaac Allerton, Richard Warren, Thomas Tinker, 

Miles Standish, John Howland, John Ridgdale, 

John Alden, Stephen Hopkins, Edward Fuller, 

John Turner, Digery Priest, Richard Clark, 

Francis Eaton, Thomas Williams, Rich. Gardiner, 

James Chilton, Gilbert Winslow, John Allerton, 

John Craxton, Edmund Morgeson, Thomas English, 

John Billington, Peter Brown, Edward Doten, 

Joses Fletcher, Richard Bitteridge, Edward Liester. 

John Goodman,] George Soule, 


After this, they chose Mr. John Carver, a man 
godly and well approved among them, to be their 
governor for that year. 

Necessity now calling them to look out a place 
for habitation, as well as the master and mariners, 
importunity urging them thereunto; while their 
carpenter was trimming up of their boat, sixteen 
of their men tendered themselves to go by land 
and discover those nearest places, which was ac 
cepted; and they being well armed, were sent forth 
on the sixteenth of November, 1620, and having 
marched about a mile by the sea-side, they espied 
five Indians, who ran away from them, and they 
followed them all that day sundry miles, but could 
not come to speak with them; so night coming on, 
they betook themselves to their rendezvous, and 
sent out their sentinels, and rested in quiet that 
night; and the next morning they followed the In 
dian tracks, but could not find them or their dwell 
ings, but at length lighted on a good quantity of 
clear ground near to a pond of fresh water, where 
formerly the Indians had planted Indian corn, at 
which place they saw sundry of their graves; and 
proceeding further, they found new stubble where 
Indian corn had been planted the same year, also 
they found where lately a house had been, where 
some planks and a little kettle was remaining, and 
heaps of sand newly paddled with their hands, 
which they digged up, and found in them divers 
fair Indian baskets filled with corn, some whereof 
was in ears, fair and good, of divers colours, 
which seemed to them a very goodly sight, having 
seen none before. Of which rarities they took 
some to carry to their friends on shipboard, like 
s the Israelites 5 spies brought from lishcol some 



of the good fruits of the land; but finding little 
that might make for their encouragement as to 
situation, they returned, being gladly received by 
the rest of their company. 

After this, their shallop being ready, they set 
out the second time for a more full discovery of 
this place, especially a place that seemed to be an 
opening as they went into the said harbour some 
two or three leagues off, which the master judged 
to be a river; about thirty of them went out on this 
second discovery, the master of the ship going 
with them; but upon the more exact discovery 
thereof, they found it to be no harbour for ships, 
but only for boats. There they also found two of 
their houses covered with mats, and sundry of their 
implements in them; but the people ran away, and 
could not be seen. Also there they found more 
of their corn and beans of various colours; the 
corn and beans they brought away, purposing to 
give them full satisfaction when they should meet 
with any of them. About six months a/ter they 
gave them full satisfaction to their content. And 
here is to be noted, a special and a great mercy 
to this people, that here they got them seed to 
plant them corn the next year, or otherwise they 
might have starved, for they had none, nor any 
likelihood to get any, until the season had been 
past, as the sequel did manifest, neither is it like 
ly that they had had this, if the first discovery had 
not been made, for the ground was now all cover 
ed with snow, and hard frozen; but the Lord is 
never wanting unto those that are his, in their 
greatest needs. Let his holy name have all the 


Having thus discovered this place, it was con 
troverted among them what to do, touching their 
abode and settling there. Some thought it best 
for many reasons to abide there. 

1st. Because of the convenience of the harbour 
for hosts, though not for ships. 

2d. There was good corn ground ready to their 
hands as was seen by experience in the goodly 
corn it yielded, which again would agree with the 
ground, and be natural seed for the same. 

3d. Cape Cod was like to be a place for good 
fishing, for they daily saw great whales of the best 
kind for oil. 

4th. The place was likely to be heathful, se 
cure and defensible. 

5thly, and lastly. The especial reason was, that 
now the heart of the winter and unseasonable 
weather was come upon them, so as they could 
not go upon coasting and discovery, without dan 
ger of losing both men and boat, upon which would 
follow the overthrow of all, especially considering 
what variable winds and sudden storms do there 
arise; also cold and wet lodging had so tainted 
their people, as scarce any of them were free from 
vehement coughs, as if they should continue long, 
it would endanger the lives of many, and breed 
diseases and infection among them. Again, that 
as yet they had some provisions, but they would 
quickly be spent, and then they should have noth 
ing to comfort them in their labour and toil that 
they were like to undergo. At the first it was 
also conceived, whilst they had competent vic 
tuals, that the ship would stay, but when that grew 
low, they would be gone and let them shift for 


Others again urged to go to Agawam, alias An- 
gawam, a place about twenty leagues oiflf to the 
northward, which they had heard to be an excel 
lent harbour for ships, better ground, and better 

Secondly, for any thing they knew there might 
be hard by as a better seat, and it would be a 
great hindrance to seat where they should remove 

But to omit many reasons and replies concern 
ing this matter, it was in the end concluded to 
make some discovery within the bay, but in no 
case so far as Angawam.* Besides, Robert Cop- 
pin, their pilot, made relation of a great naviga 
ble river and good harbour in the other headland 
of the bay, -almost right over against Cape Cod, 
being in a right line not much above eight leagues 
distant, in which he had once been, and beyond 
that place they that were to go on discovery, were 
enjoined not to go. About this time Mrs. Su 
sanna White was delivered of a son, who was 
named Peregrine; he was the first of the English 
that w T as born in New-England, and still survi- 
veth,f and is the Lieutenant of the military com 
pany of JMarshfteld. 

The month of November being spent on these 
affairs, and having much foul weather; on the sixth 
of December they concluded to send out their 
shallop again on a third discovery. The names 
of those that went on this discovery, were Mr. 
John Carver, Mr. William Bradford, Mr. Ed 
ward Winslow, Capt. Miles Standish, Mr. John 

* Supposed to be where Salem now is. Ed. 

t ierfS. 

276 APPENDIX. , 

Rowland, Mr. Richard Warren, Mr. Stephen 
Hopkins, Mr. Edward Tilly, Mr. John Tilly, 
Mr. Clark, Mr. Coppin, John Allerton, Thomas 
English, Edward Doten, with the master gunner 
of the ship, and three of the common seamen; 
these set sail on Wednesday the sixth of Decem 
ber, 1620, intending to circulate the deep bay of 
Cape Cod, the weather being very cold, so as the 
spray of the sea lighting on their coats, they were 
as if they had been glazed, notwithstanding, that 
night they got down into the bottom of the bay, 
and as they drew near .the shore they saw some 
ten or twelve Indians, and landed about a league 
off them, but with some difficulty, by reason of 
the shoals in that place, where they tarried that 

In the morning they divided their company to 
oast along, some on shore and some in the boat, 
vhere they saw the Indians had been the day be- 
bre cutting up a fish like a Grampus; and so they 
anged up and down all that day, but found no 
oeople, nor any place they liked, as fit for their 
settlement; and that night, they on shore met with 
their boat at a certain creek, where they made 
them a baricado of boughs and logs, for their 
lodging that night, and being weary betook them 
selves to rest. This is thought to be a place call 
ed Namskeket. The next morning, about five 
o clock, (seeking guidance and protection from 
God by prayer) and refreshing themselves, in way 
of preparation, to persist on their intended expe 
dition, some of them carried their arms down to 
the boat, having laid them up in their coats from 
the moisture of the weather; but others said they 
vould not carry theirs until they went themselves: 



but presently all on a sudden, about the dawning 
of the day, they heard a great and strange cry, 
and one of their company being on board, came 
hastily in. and cried, Indians ! Indians ! and, with 
al, their arrows came flying among them ; on 
which all their men ran with speed to recover their 
arms; as by God s good providence they did. In 
the mean time some of those that were ready dis 
charged two muskets at them, and two more stood 
ready at the entrance of their rendezvous, but 
were commanded not to shoot until they could 
take full aim at them; and the other two charged 
again with all speed, for there were only four that 
had arms there, and defended the barricaclo which 
was first assaulted. The cry of the Indians was 
dreadful, especially when they saw their men run 
out of their rendezvous towards the shallop to re 
cover their arms; the Indians wheeling about up 
on them ; but some running but with coats of 
mail, and cuttle axes-in their hands, they soon re 
covered their arms, and discharged among them, 
and soon stayed their violence. Notwithstanding, 
there was a lusty man, and no less valiant, stood 
behind a tree within half a musket shot, and let 
his arrows fly among them; he was seen to shoot 
three arrows, which were all avoided, arid stood 
three shot of a musket, until one taking full aim 
at him, made the bark or splinters of the tree My 
about his ears; after which he gave an extraordi 
nary shriek, and away they went all of them; and 
so leaving some to keep the shallop, they follow 
ed them about a quarter of a mile, that they might 
conceive t-iat they were not afraid of them, or any 
way discouraged. This place, on this occasion, 
was called the First Encounter. 


Thus it pleased God to vanquish their enemies, 
and to give them deliverance, and by his special 
providence so to dispose, that not any of them was 
either hurt or hit, though their arrows came close 
by them; and sundry of their coats, which hung 
up in the barricade, were shot through and through; 
for which salvation and deliverance they rendered 
solemn thanksgiving unto the Lord. 

From hence they departed, and coasted all 
along, but discerned no place likely for harbour, 
and therefore hasted to the place the pilot, as afore 
said, told them of, who assured them that there 
was a good harbour, and they might fetch it be 
fore night; of which they were glad, for it began 
to be foul weather. 

After some hours sailing, it began to snow and 
rain, and about the middle of the afternoon the 
wind increased, and the sea became very rough, 
and they broke their rudder, and it was as much 
as two men could do to steer the boat with a 
couple of oars; but the pilot bid them be of good 
eli^er, for he saw the harbour; but the storm in 
creasing, and night drawer" on, they bore what 
sail they could to get n- ihey could see; but 

herewith they broke their mast in three pieces, 
and their sail fell overboard in a vrry grown sea, 
so as they had like to have been cast away; yet 
by God s mercy they recovered themselves, and 
having the flood with them, struck into the har 
bour. But when it came to, the pilot was de 
ceived, and said, Lord be merciful to us, my eyes 
never saw this place before; and he and the mas 
ter s mate would have run the boat ashore in a 
cove full of breakers before the wind, but a lusty 
seamen, who steered, bid them that rowed, if they 


were men, about with her, else they were all cast 
away, the which they did with all speed; so he 
hid them he of good cheer, and row hard, for 
there was a fair sound before them, and he doubt 
ed not but they should find one place or other 
they might ride in safety. And although it was 
very dark, and rained sore, yet in the end they 
got under the lee of a small island, and remained 
there alj night in safety. But they knew not this 
to be an island until the next morning, but were 
much divided in their minds; some would keep the 
boat, doubting they might be among the Indians, 
others were so wet and cold they could not en 
dure, but got on shore, and with much difficulty 
got fire, and so the whole were refreshed, and 
rested in safety that night. The next day, ren 
dering thanks to God for his great deliverance of 
them, and his continued merciful good providence 
towards them; and finding this to be an island, it 
being the last day of the week, they resolved to 
keep the Sabbath. This was between the place- 
called the Gurnet s Nose and Sagaquab, by the 
mouth of Plymouth harbour. This was after 
wards called Clark s island, because Mr. Clark, 
the master s mate, first stepped ashore thereon. 

On the second day of the week following they 
sounded the harbour, and found it fit for shipping, 
and marched into the land, arid found divers corn 
fields, and little running brooks, a place, as they 
supposed, fit for situation, at least it was the best 
that they could find, and the season and the pres 
ent necessity made them glad to accept of it. So 
they returned to their ship with this news to the 
rest of the people, which did much comfort, the if 



On the fifteenth of December they weighed an 
chor, to go to the place they had discovered, and 
arrived the sixteenth day in the harbour they had 
formerly discovered, and afterwards took better 
view of the place, and resolved where to pitch 
their dwellings; and on the five and twentieth day 
xf December began to erect the first house for 
common use, to receive them and their goods. 
And after they had provided a place for their 
^oods and common store, (which was long in un 
lading for want of boats, and by reason of foul 
ness of the winter weather, and sickness of di 
vers,) they began to build some small cottages for 
habitation, as time would admit; and also consult 
ed of laws and orders both for their civil and mil 
itary government, as the necessity of their present 
condition did require. But that which was sad 
and lamentable, in two or three months time half 
of their company died, especially in January and 
February, being the depth of winter, wanting 
houses and other comforts, being infected with 
the scurvy and other diseases, which this long 
voyage and their incommodate condition had 
brought upon them, so as there died, sometimes 
i wo, somfitirnes three on a day, in the aforesaid 
time, that of one hundred and odd persons, scarce 
ly fifty remained. Among others in the time fore 
named, died Mr. William Mullins, a man pious 
and well-deserving, endowed also with a consid 
erable outward estate; and had it been the will of 
God that he had survived, might have proved an 
useful instrument in his place, with several others 
who deceased in this great and common affliction, 
whom I might take notice of to the like eifect. 
Of those that did survive in this time of distress 


and calamity that was upon them, there was some 
times but six or seven sound persons, who, to their 
great commendation be it spoken, spared no pains 
night nor day to be helpful to the rest, not shun 
ning to do very mean services to help the weak 
and impotent. In which sickness the seamen 
shared also deeply, and many died, to about the 
one half of them, before they went away. Thus 
being but few, and very weak, this was an oppor 
tunity for the savages to have made a prey of 
them, who were wont to be most cruel and treach 
erous people in all these parts, even like lions; but 
to them they were as lambs, God striking a dread 
in their hearts, so that they received no harm from 
them. The Lord also so disposed, as aforesaid, 
much to waste them by a great mortality, togeth 
er with which were their own civil dissensions, and 
bloody wars, so as the twentieth person was scarce 
left alive when these people arrived, there remain 
ing sad spectacles of that mortality in the place 
where they seated, by many bones and skulls of 
the dead lying above ground; whereby it appear 
ed that the living of them were not able to bury 
them. Some of the ancient Indians that are sur 
viving at the writing hereof, do affirm, that about 
some two or three years before the first English 
arrived here, they saw a blazing star, or comet, 
which was a fore-runner of this sad mortality, for 
soon after it carne upon them in extremity. Thus 
God made way for his people, by removing the 
heathen, and planting them in the land; yet we 
hope in mercy to some of the posterity of these 
blind savages, by being a means, at least stepping- 
stones, for others to come and preach the gospel 
among them; of which afterwards in its proper 


place. This seemeth to be the same star that 
was seen about that time in Europe. But to 
return ; 

The Indians, after their arrival, would show 
themselves afar off, but when they endeavoured 
to come near them they would run away. But 
about the sixteenth of March, 1621, a certain In 
dian, called Samoset, came boldly among them, 
and spoke to them in broken English, which yet 
they could well understand; at which they mar 
velled; but at length they understood that he be 
longed to the eastern parts of the country, and 
had acquaintance with sundry of the English fish 
ermen, and could name sundry of them, from 
whom he learned his language. He became 
very profitable to them, in acquainting them with 
many things concerning the state of the country 
in the eastern parts, as also of the people here; 
of their names, number and strength, of their sit 
uation and distance from this place, and who was 
chief among them. He told them also of another 
Indian called Squanto, alias Sisquantam, one of 
ibis place, who had been in England, and could 
speak better English than himself; and after 
courteous entertainment of him he was dismissed. 
Afterwards he came again with some other na 
tives, and told them of the coming of the great 
Sachem, named Massasoiet, who, about four or 
live days after, came with the chief of his friends 
and other attendants, with the aforesaid Squanto, 
with whom, after friendly entertainment and some 
gifts given him, they made a league of peace, 
which continued with him and his successors to 
the time of the writing hereof. 



Story of Capt. Smith and Pocahontas. 

The southern Indians were exasperated against 
the English before any regular settlement was 
made. An Indian town was burnt by Sir Rich 
ard Greenville, only because a native had stolen 
a silver cup. At another time a Mr. Lane and 
his company killed a Chief, and several others. 
These, with other acts of inhumanity, were not 
forgotten; but as soon as a settlement was made, 
and an opportunity offered, they took revenge. 

The colony of Virginia were involved in per 
petual broils with the Indians, and to add to their 
calamities, their governors sent over by the king, 
were at first, cruel and oppressive. At length 
Capt. John Smith was sent over, and affairs took 
a different turn. But a predatory war was every 
day carried on by the Indians, and nothing could 
put a stop to these outrages, but their subjugation. 
Capt. Smith, while engaged in this business, un 
fortunately for the Colony, was taken by a party 
of Indians, subjects of Powhatan, in making his 
escape across a swamp, having got stuck fast in 
the mud. He was conveyed in triumph to Powr 
hatan, who resolved on his immediate death. The 
manner being agreed upon, and performed with all 
its terrors. Two huge stones were placed, and 
Capt. Smith was brought, and his head laid upon 
one, while the other was raised to dash out his 
brains. At this moment, Pocahontas, the king s 
darling daughter, stayed the arm of the execution 
er, by throwing herself between, and covering his 
head with her own. At the same time beseech 
ing her father to spare his life, with all the ten- 


derness, which female innocence inspires. Pow- 
hatan was moved, for the sake of his daughter, to 
prolong his life. 

His release was affected in a singular manner. 
He told Powhatan, that if he would send one of 
his men to the English, on a certain day, he should 
find under a certain tree, such implements of war, 
&,c. as should be agreed upon for his ransom. 
Powhatan consented, but without much confidence. 
Captain Smith took a leaf from his pocket-book, 
wrote on it what his situation was, and what ar 
rangements he had made for his release. The 
messenger taking it directly to the English, at the 
day appointed, everything was found agreeably to 
stipulation. This mode of doing buisness they 
thought miraculous, and that, at least, Capt. 
Smith was a worker of magic. He w r as therefore 
sent home, and ever after held in great respect by 
them. On his return to the colonists he found 
them in a wretched condition. Pocahontas often 
visited him, and always presenting some kind of 
provisions, of which, at this time, they were very 
much in want. Not long after this, a plan was 
laid by the Indians for destroying the whole set 

Pocahontas set out the night preceding, in the 
most violent storm, and arrived in time to save 
them, by informing them of the design. This 
justly celebrated woman was afterward married to 
an English gentleman by the name of Rolf, with 
whom she lived happily. She visited England 
with her husband, was introduced to the royal 
family, and many of the nobility. She died as she 
was about to return to America, leaving a son 
from whom have descended some of the most re 
spectable personages of Virginia. 



Tins tribe of Indians inhabited the east side of 
Connecticut river, near its mouth. In the year 
1634, they murdered Capt. Stone, and a Capt. 
Norton, who came to trade with them. In 1635, 
a Mr. Oldham was killed at Block Island. In 
1636, about Wethersfield, many of the inhabitants 
were killed and some carried away and tortured 
in their barbarous manner. They had a fort at 
Mystic,* which was their place of rendezvous, and 
until this should be destroyed, nothing decisive 
could be done. 

In May 1637, Capt. Mason was sent from 
Connecticut, who soon fell upon the fort, and after 
a heavy discharge through the palisades, entered 
it sworcKn hand. The enemy made a desperate 
resistance, and for some time the day seemed 
doubtful; the Indians secreting themselves in and 
about the houses. At length Capt. Mason em 
ployed a stratagem, which had the desired effect. 
He took a brand of fire, and communicated it to 
ihe mats, with which their houses were covered, 
and in a few moments they were all in flame*; 
then retreating out of the fort, surrounded it on 
all sides. The Indians were obliged to issue out, 
who were no sooner out, than shot down. Thus 
in about an hour was the work completed, and 
this great horde broken up. After this the Pe- 
quots made but little resistance, but were pursued 
some distance west,f and many more surprised at 
different places. Before the pursuit was finished, 

* On Mystic river. 

t Into the country of the Nipmucks. 


and at the fort, about 700 were slain. This put 
such a check to them, that till the time of Philip, 
did nothing of great moment occur. 


In 1688, the Indians known hy the name of the 
Five Nations, being exasperated against the 
French, with an army of about 1200 men, attack 
ed the island of Montreal, and killed 1000 inhab 
itants, and carried away many prisoners. They 
fell upon the island again the same year, and went 
off with about the same success. In consequence 
of which, a garrison fell into their hands, and con 
siderable military stores ; among which were 
twenty-seven barrels of powder. 


In 1690, the French stirred up the Canada In 
dians to destroy our frontier settlements. Count 
Frontenac, then Governor of Canada, planned 
three expeditions in the midst of winter, which 
were by different routs to surprise the frontier in 
habitants. In February, one party, consisting of 
French and Indians, arrived in the vicinity of 
Schenectady. They were on the point of surren 
dering themselves prisoners of war, on account of 
their wretched condition from so tedious a march, 
and the severity of the season; when their spies 
returned, and informed them of the defenceless 
state of the town. On this intelligence, they re 
ceived new courage. And in the middle of the 
night, entered the town in small parties, and be 
fore the people could leave their beds, their houses 
were entered; and shocking to relate, about 100 
persons were killed, or carried away to endure a, 


captivity, even worse than death itself. No one 
can conceive of the horrors of this fatal night 
Infants torn from their mothers, arid thrown into 
the flames, or their brains dashed out against the 
walls of their houses; nay, more, ravishing and 
murder were added to their crimes. 

Many escaped without clothes, and perished in 
the cold and storm of that night. Twenty-five of 
those who returned, lost their limbs. 

They killed all the cattle, and horses, except 
about forty to bear off their plunder. The Mo 
hawks joined a party of young men from Albany 
and fell upon their rear, killed and made prisoners 
about thirty of them. 


Captivity of Mr. Williams and Family. 

In 1703, Hertel, with about 300 French and 
Indians, fell upon the town of Deerfield, on Con 
necticut river, put about forty persons to death, 
took 100 captives, burned the buildings, collected 
what booty they could and made off. 

Among the captives were the Rev. Mr Wil 
Hams and his wife. Mr. WilHams house was 
about the first assaulted. It being in the dead of 
the night, by the time he was out of bed, the In 
dians had made their way into his room, he seized 
us pistol, and would have shot down the first, but 
it missed fire; that moment he was laid hold of by- 
others, who bound him, naked as he was, a whole 
lour, notwithstanding the cold was intense. He 
was then suffered to put on a few clothes, and his 
wife likewise,* who at this time had a very young 

And five children. 



child. Alas, how changed the scene ! in this weak 
state, compelled to wade in deep snows through 
dismal woods, instead of a warm habitation, and 
the kind attention of a husband. She did not en 
dure it long. On the 2d day, her savage master, 
finding it was not in her power to keep along with 
the rest, sunk his hatchet into her head, and she 
was no more ! What excessive horror, what heart 
rending grief, must have seized the bosom of Mr. 
Williams ! no adequate idea can be formed. Mr. 
Williams was carried to Canada, and afterward 
ransomed, and returned to Boston. A daughter 
of Mr. Williams married an Indian with whom 
she continued to live. 


In the summer of 1722, the Norridgewock In 
dians became troublesome. Among them was 
one Ralle, a French Priest or Prophet, whom 
they held in the greatest veneration; insomuch, 
that nothing was undertaken unless approved of 
by him; therefore, all broils between the English 
and Indians, Ralle was thought accessary to. A 
force was ordered to Norridgewock, their princi 
pal town, but on their approach it was abandoned. 
The expedition affected nothing but the bringing 
away Ralle s papers, by which however, it was 
ascertained that the French had caused the war. 
The Indians thought this such an insult on the 
divine agency, that they were at once more open 
in their depredations. 

A company of about 70 of them, fell upon 
Merry meeting Bay, an arm of the Winnipisiogee, 
and carried off nine families. Shortly after they 
took a vessel with passengers, and burnt Bruns 


The war now became general. In February 
following, 130 men under Col. Westbrook, ranged 
the eoa st with small vessels, went up to Pcnobjseot, 
burned a handsome Indian town, and returned 
without doing any thing but this savage act. 

Soon after, Capt. Moulton traversed the coun 
try, and by his lenity in preserving Indian villages, 
effected more than many of his predecessors by 
their burning. 

In the summer of 1723, Canso was destroyed, 
and sixteen sail of fishing vessels taken, by the 
enemy. Capt. Eliot, in a man of war sloop, with 
about fifty men, recaptured seven of them, which 
were at Winepang harbour. On cruising the 
coast, and seeing them in the harbour, made di 
rectly in. On board of one vessel were about 60 
Indians, who thought themselves sure of another 
prize. Capt. Eliot having secreted his men, and 
as he approached them they boldly cried out, 
" Strike you English dogs, for you are ail prison 
ers." Eliot s men then all rose up, and boarded 
them sword in hand. They made brave resist 
ance for half an hour; but could not withstand the 
force of the heavy swords of the English, and 
those who survived took to the water, where their 
fate was as certain; five only reached the shore. 


The great retreat of those Indians was Norridge- 
wock, where they had a strong fort; nothing, there 
fore, could put a stop to their ravages," until it 
was destroyed. Accordingly in August, 1724, 
an expedition was planned, and four companies 
sent on this enterprise. The brave Capt. Moul-* 


ton commanded that directed to fall immediately 
on the fort. On coming up the Indians rushed 
out, in number about sixty, and with a furious yell 
attacked them. The English returned their fire 
with such deadly effect, that they tied in confusion 
to the river, some reached the opposite shore, but 
many were shot in crossing; the water being deep. 
Moulton then returned to the town and utterly 
destroyed it. 

The famous Ralle was at this place. Capt. 
Moulton had given orders that he should not be 
killed; but a Lieutenant seeing him engaged in 
the work of death,, forced into his house, and shot 
him through the head; not however till he had re 
fused to have or give quarter. 

This was a final overthrow to the Norridgewocks. 
Charlevoix gives a shocking account of this affair, 
in which he accuses the English with more than 
savage cruelty. He gives Ralle all the honour 
of a saint, without charging him with any crimes. 
Ralle was a man of great erudition. His letters, 
written in Latin, were said to be highly classical. 


In the winter of 1725, the famous Capt. John 
Lovewell, of Dunstable, engaged in the war 
against the Indians. A premium of 100 pounds 
being offered by government for each Indian s 
scalp. Lovewell raised a company of volunteers, 
and in less than three months, made about 1200 

On the 8th of May, 1726, as they were rang 
ing the wilderness at a great distance from home, 
they were attacked by a party of eighty Indians. 
When the battle began they were not far from the 


eefrge of a small pond. Lovewell immediately re 
treated to the water s edge, and thus prevented be 
ing surrounded. Here one of the most desperate 
battles was fought ever related in Indian story. 
Here thirty-two brave men, for six hours togeth 
er, withstood the repeated shocks of eighty savages. 
Night coining on, each party thought themselves 
happy to escape from the other. Capt. Lovewell, 
his Lieutenant and Ensign were among the first 
that fell, who, with five more, were left on the field 
of battle. Sixteen escaped unhurt. Eight were 
left in this hideous wilderness, badly wounded, 
two of whom only returned, the rest having died of 
hunger, and their wounds. The loss of the enemy 
could not be known, but must have been very 

This was a severe blow to the English, yet the 
Indians were sadly disappointed. And was the 
means of bringing about a peace which lasted 
many years. 


Disturbances between the French and English 
nations, soon involved the colonies in a war. In 
1754, Maj. Washington was advanced to the rank 
of Colonel, and at the head of about 300 Virgin 
ians, was directed to repel the encroachments of 
the French and Indians on the Ohio. Troops 
from Carolina and New-York, were to join them; 
Washington, without the expected re-enforcements 
from New- York, advanced boldly to meet the en 
emy. The commander of fort Du Quesne,* 
a strong fort in the possession of the Frenclv 

* Ncnv Pittsburg, in Pennsylvania. 


sent out a body of French, and Indians, whom 
Washington fell in with, and after a hard fpught 
battle, entirely defeated them. The commander 
of the fort then appeared in person, with about 900 
men, besides Indians. Washington had only time 
to throw up some slight works, which he called 
Fort Necessity, when he was hailed by the yells of 
The savages v and the furious attack of the French. 
He, with his tew brave men, made a gallant de 
fence, and hourly looked for the New-York 
troops, but in vain. They could expect nothing 
but to sell their lives as dear as they could. At 
length, to their great astonishment, the French 
commander sent in a ilag of truce, offering an 
honourable capitulation, which was, that they 
should march out with the honours of w r ar, and 
with their arms, LC. to return to their native 
country, which Washington was pleased to accept. 
Here, at the iirst setting out of the great 
Washington, we discover in him a second Leoni- 
das. Who can trace his youthful steps, without 
the greatest admiration? At the age of 23, baffling 
the skill of experienced commanders. 


In the beginning of the year 1755, Gen. Brad- 
ilock was sent over by the British Government 
with about 1500 men, to proceed against the 
French on the Ohio. On arriving in Virginia his 
army was augmented to rising 2000 men. Much 
time was lost before the troops were put in mo 
tion. Notwithstanding Gen. Braddoek arrived 
early in the spring, yet, it was June before he 
took up his march. Before he left England, ho 
was often advised of the danger of 


and when on his march Col. Washington, his aide, 
modestly urged the necessity of using great cau 
tion. He repeatedly requested the favour that 
lie might march in advance of his army with his 
rangers, but his advice was treated with contempt, 
and the General in derision observed, " A Buck* 
skin teach a British General how to fight!" 

When within about thirteen miles of fort D-u 
Quesne, they had to pass a dangerous defile, and 
yet, no precaution was taken to prevent a surprise. 
The army had all entered the fatal place, when 
on a sudden, a most tremenduous, and deadly fire 
was opened upon them; yet, there was hardly an 
enemy to be seen. At this moment the General 
discovered great intrepedity, and as much impru 
dence. Instead of retreating from this position, 
he used his utmost exertions to form his regulars, 
who were thrown into confusion by the first onset. 
The Virginians alone stood firm although as much 
exposed as the regulars; and under the direction 
of the brave Col. Washington, succeeded in cov 
ering their retreat; thereby preventing the total 
ruin of the shattered army. The General had 
five horses shot from under him; at length receiv 
ing a shot in the head, he fell. 

"Beneath his ear the mortal weapon went; 
The soul came issuing at the narrow vent: 
His limbs, unnerv d, drop useless on the ground, 
And everlasting darkness shades him round." 

He was immediately conveyed to the rear. 

"Him on his car the JVashingtonian train 
In sad procession bore from off the plain. " 

Many were the brave officers, and men who fell on 
this fatal day. The number of officers far ex 
ceeded the common proportion; in all it is said he 



lost half of his army.* In this retreat, we behold 
in our Washington a second Xenophon. 


Among the most enterprising men, who hav 
contributed to subdue the wilderness, should be 
mentioned Capt. Daniel Boon. He set out from 
North-Carolina, in company with five others, and 
explored the country to the plains of Kentucky, 
and course of the Ohio. He returned home in 
1771, having been absent about two years. In 
this expedition he was taken prisoner by a number 
of Indians, and to effect his escape, pretended per 
fect satisfaction with his situation, until a good op- 
portunily offered. One night, as his Indian com 
panions lay asleep, he crept away softly, and made 
good his escape. 

He was so delighted with the beautiful country 
of Kentucky, that he resolved to move his family 
thither. In 1773, he set out with his family in 
company with several more. After passing two 
ranges of mountains, and in the vicinity of Cum 
ber] and mountains, their company were attacked 
by a numerous body of Indians, who killed six of 
them, among whom was Capt. Boon s oldest 
son. Though they defeated the Indians, yet their 
cuttle were so scattered, and their plans so discon 
certed, that they concluded to return to the settle- 
men, s. 

Cart. Boon was then employed by the Govern- 
our of Virginia, in surveys, &c. till 1774. After 
that, he laid out a road through the wildernes to 
Kentucky, where he erected a fort, and called it 
Boonsborough. This was on the Kentucky river. 
In 1775, he moved his family thither. They were 

* Riders History. 


continually beset by the Indians. In 1776, they 
took his daughter prisoner. Capt. Boon pursued 
them with eight men, came up with them, and 
with his own hand, killed two of them, and retook 
his daughter. , In 1778, Capt. Boon being out a 
hunting, was taken by 102 Indians, and conveyed 
to Detroit, thence to Chilicothe. Here a plan 
was laid, and 150 warriours collected, and ordered 
to attack Boonsborough. Capt. Boon resolved 
to escape, and warn his countrymen of their inten 
tions. Accordingly on the 16th of June, before 
day, he made his escape, and on the 20th reached 
Boonsborough, a distance of 160 miles in four 
days, during which time he had but one meal of 

In August the meditated attack was made on 
Boonsborough, by about 140 Indians, under the 
command of a Frenchman. A surrender of the 
fort was immediately demanded. Capt. Boon 
told them he should hold out, as long as he had a 
man left. They commenced the siege, and after 
about eleven days were obliged to abandon it, 
having thirty-seven men killed. He went to 
North-Carolina after this, and removed his family 
to Kentucky again; for during his captivity with 
the Indians, his wife thinking him killed, had con 
veyed herself and family to North Carolina. But 
their situation was as bad as before; men were 
continually killed, women ravished and murdered, 
and their crops destroyed. 

^Capt. Boon, and three other officers, with about 
176 men, met a large body of savages on Licking 
river, and fought then to great disadvantage, hav 
ing sixty-seven men killed ; among whom was 
Capt. Boon s second son. Disturbances continu- 



ed for some time after. At length the Indians 
desiring peace, a formal treaty was" concluded with 
them; and from that time the country wore a dif 
ferent aspect. 


In 1791, the Indians about the Ohio, had again 
resumed the hatchet, and every day grew more 
troublesome. Congress sent out General Harmer, 
with about 1400 men to destroy their settlements 
on the Scioto, and W abash rivers. On the ap 
proach of the army to the great Miami village, 
the Indians set it on fire, and fled. The army 
was divided, and by a manoeuvre of the enemy, 
again subdivided. The first detachment were 
surprised by an ambush, and nearly all slain. A 
second detachment, consisting of about 500, soon 
met a similar fate. This expedition terminated 
with the loss of 360 men. Had the enemy fol 
lowed up their successes, the whole army must 
have been destroyed. 


At that time, Gen. St. Clair was Governor of 
the western territory. He was furnished with 
2000 men to subdue those savages. He marched 
into the country of the Miamies, and had arrived 
within about two miles of the Miami village in the 
evening; made very judicious arrangements, for 
an expected attack, which was made very early the 
next morning; but owing to the shameful conduct 
of the militia, was totally defeated; having about 
600 killed. The General, after doing all that 
could be done on the field of battle, retreated in 


good order. In this battle the brave Gen. But 
ler fell. Among the wounded was Col. Drake, 
who at the head of his regiment, put the whole left 
flank of the enemy to flight; but being severely 
wounded, this success was not long maintained; 
yet he assisted greatly in the retreat. 


After this, Gen. Wayne took the command, 
and arrived with his army on the ground where 
Gen. St. Clair was defeated^ in September, 1793. 
After gathering up the bones of their friends, and 
committing them to the dust, they erected a fort, 
which the General called Fort Recovery. 

The next year, in August, after many ineffect 
ual attempts to bring about a peace, Gen. Wayne 
found that nothing but coercive measures would 
succeed. On the 20th, a decisive battle was 
fought near the Miami, and the Indians com 
pletely defeated, and driven out of the country* 
and their vilages and provisions destroyed to pre 
vent their return. In the battle 2000 Indians 
were engaged, but the American force was supe- 
riour, and suffered but little. The Indians lost 
about 300 warriours. 


For about sixteen years the frontier inhabitants 
seem to have been tolerably free from the inroads of 
the savages. But the Wabash Indians, by many 
thievish ravages, had given much cause of com 
plaint. A Shawanese, assuming the character of 
a prophet, here appeared primary in forming a 
oombination for invading the white settlements. 


This fellow was a brother of the celebrated Te- 
cumseh. Governor Harrison concentrated a con 
siderable force at Tippecanoe, a branch of the 
W abash. On the 7th November, 1811, a large 
body of Indians attempted to surprise him, but 
by his judicious precautions were prevented, and 
" ample vengeance inflicted upon them." Har 
rison s loss was considerable, having ISO killed 
and wounded, among whom were many valuable 
officers. The enemy had about 350 killed, and 
their combination entirely broken up. 


In 181o, at Frenchtown, on the river Raisin, 
Gen. Winchester was invested by a body of Brit 
ish and Indians, under Proctor, and the Indian 
chiefs, Split-Log and Round-Head. Gen. Win 
chester marched into this country to relieve the 
inhabitants of Frenchtown, who were threatened 
with an Indian massacre. On his arrival here, 
he met a body of the enemy, and after a severe 
conflict put them to the, rout. But on the arrival 
of Gen. Proctor, Split- L >g and Round-Head, 
affairs took a turn. A most gallant resistance 
w r as made, but, in consequence of superior num 
bers, they were obliged to capitulate. It was 
stipulated, that the men should not be pilfered by 
the savages, and should have protection from the 
British soldiers. But the perfidious Proctor gave 
them into the hands of the Indians as soon as 
they had surrendered, and one of the most inhu 
man massacres ever recorded was suffered to be 
carried on, under the eyes of British officers. 
Upwards of 800 perished in battle before they 
had surrendered, and more than a hundred in ths 



Jlnd Death of Tecumseh. 
In October, 1813, Gen. Harrison moved up 
the Thames, a river of Upper Canada, and at 
a short distance from the Moravian town, was 
met by about 2000 British and Tecumseh s In 
dians, who, under Proctor, had retreated thither. 
The battle soon began, and at the commencement 
Col. Johnson, of Kentucky, at the head of the 
mounted riflemen, was ordered to break the ene 
my s line, which was executed with great intre 
pidity. The Indians had possession of a thick 
wood, where they fought with great bravery. 
Here the tremendous voice of Tecumseh was 
heard, encouraging his warriors in the most ener 
getic manner. The cavalry were soon in motion 
to dislodge them. Johnson came directly on the 
point where Tecumseh was stationed. 

" He boldly stood, collected in his might; 
And all his beating bosom claim d the fight." 

Here the battle was most severe, and " mutual 
deaths were exchanged on either side." At 
length the brave Tecumseh fell, and at nearly 
the same time the brave Johnson. 

" The darts fly round him from a thousand hands, 
And the red terrors of the blazing bands." 

Though not mortally wounded, yet he was cov 
ered with wounds. They did not fall alone. 
Within a few yads, around them thirty brave men 
lay slain. By some, Colonel J-ohnson is said to 
have killed Tecumseh; some others, that he was 
killed bv a soldier, as he was about to deal a mor- 


tal blow on the head of the Colonel. But it is 
now generally believed, that he fell by the hand 
of Col. Johnson. 

When Tecumseh s voice was no longer heard, 
the savages gave way, and in a short time the vic 
tory was complete, and almost the whole force 
^ere made prisoners. 


Massacre at Fort Mims. 
We now return to the South, where the Creek 
Indians appear in open war. The country along 
the Mobile was much alarmed on the breaking 
out of the war between Great Britain and the 
United States; therefore, forts were erected at 
different places, of which fort Mims was the 
chief. Here were a great many families, and 
about one hundred soldiers, under the command 
of Major Beasely. They were sufficiently cau 
tioned against a surprise, and yet, the fort was 
entered by the savages at noon day, (August 30, 
1813,ybefore they were discovered. Never was 
witnessed a more dreadful scene! People, young 
and old, women and children, were burned to death 
in their houses ! Some rushing into the flames to 
avoid a more dreadful fate ! Maj. Beasely was 
among the first that was slain. The whole num 
ber that perished in this horrid massacre, was 
about 350. On intelligence of this disaster in 
Tennessee, Generals, Jackson, Coffee and Cook, 
with ft considerable army were in motion. In the 
beginning of November, Gen. Coffee, with a de 
tached party, met the enemy at a place called 
Tallushatches, where they were ready to receive 
him, and after a bloody battle, in which they dis- 


played great bravery, were cut off to a man; be 
ing about 00. 

A few days after, Gen. Jackson, at the head of 
ab^ut 1300 men, advanced against Talledega, 
where about 1000 of the enemy were besieging 
some friendly Indians. On the arrival of the, 
troops a regular action took place, and in a short 
time the enemy were put to the rout; leaving 
about 300 of their warriors dead on the field of 

Gen. White, detached by Gen. Cooke, march 
ed against a place on the river Tallapoose. Af 
ter killing and taking 300 prisoners, and destroy 
ing some villages, returned without any loss. 

An Indian, known by the name of the Prophet 
Francis, was- a great mover of this war. Some 
villages on theTallapoose, called AutosseeTowns, 
were said by the Prophets, to be places where no 
whites could disturb them. However, General 
Floyd gained a complete victory over a large body 
of them here, on the 23d January, 1814, and 
burned up their towns. In the same month, Gen. 
Jackson and Gen. Coffee advanced into their 
country, and subdued them in several battles. 
Gen. Jackson having encamped on the 21st, was 
attacked before morning; not however without be 
ing in a posture ready to receive the enemy, which 
in a short time, were put to flight, and although 
the contest was short, yet they left forty of their 
warriors slain. 

The army began now to be short of provisions, 
concluded to retreat. The next day after arriving 
at Enotachopco, they were attacked in the rear 
while crossing a dangerous defile; this sudden 
movement of the enemy, caused such disorder in 


the undisciplined troops, as threatened a total de 
feat, but through the promptness and decision of 
their intrepid General, was prevented, and the 
enemy entirely defeated. 

Gen. Floyd, after leaving the Chatahouchie 
river, was attacked in his camp, just before day. 
The battle lasted till morning with great obstina- 
> f y and resolution, on the part of the savages; but, 
as it grew light, they made their escape. Their 
number of killed was not known; the Americans 
had 17 killed, and 132 wounded. 

Notwithstanding so many successive defeats, 
these people, like the ancient Britons under the 
guidance of their druids, adhered to their proph 
ets, and still cherished the belief, that their ene 
mies would at last, be delivered into their. hands. 

Gen. Jackson came upon a great army of them at 
what is called the Horse-Shoe-Bend, of the Goose 
river. Here they had a regular fortified camp, and 
thought themselves quite secure. On the 27th 
of March, the plan of attack was put in execution, 
and after a very severe contest, in which the In 
dians fought with all the desperation their situation 
could inspire, were surrounded and cut to pieces. 
The shore of the rixer was strewed with their 
slain. 750 warriours were slain, among whom 
were three of their prophets. The Americans 
had about eighty killed, and 140 wounded. 

The fate of these prophets, may put the reader 
in mind of that of Tispaquin.* Although they 
professed the spirit of prophecy, yet they proved 
as vulnerable as poor Tispaquin, who made no 
such pretentious. On the life or death of those, 
war or peace depended, but Tispaquin s death was 

* See page 117 and 118. 


downright murder; having put himself under the 
protection of the government of Plymouth. 

Thus ended this dreadful war, dreadful when 
we consider to what a state of civilization they had 
arrived, dreadful when we contemplate that civil 
ized men* were the cause of these calamities. 

After this, in 1817, some Creeks having escap 
ed into Florida, also, some runaway negroes, took 
shelter among the Seminole Indians, and again 
ventured to appear hostile; but Gen. Jackson soon 
appeared among them, and after some considera 
ble manceuvering, during which little opposition 
was made, restored things to order. 


From that time to the present, (1825,) few disturbances 
liave arisen; yet, since the settlement of Plymouth, not a 
year has passed, without complaints against the Indians, 
from some quarter or other. The natives have sometimes 
complained to our government, their grounds of complaint 
were as just, and perhaps not less frequent, than those of 
the whites; yet, where they have made one, the whites have 
made many. It is said that the Creeks had not the least 
cause of war; for in every instance, they had been satisfac 
torily paid, for all lands claimed by them, whereon any set 
tlements were ever made. But we do not so often hear that 
Indian wars happen about lands, as other more trifling mat 
ters. The distressing eastern war of 1675, is said to have 
grown out of the foolish conduct of some sailors, who hav 
ing heard that young Indians could swim naturally, took an 
opportunity in the absence of a squawf to try the experi 
ment; and although they did not drown the chUd, war was 
the consequence. It is said by some that this was not the 
only insult that gave rise to that war, but that some of them 
had been kidnaped on board vessels, near Cape Sable, and 
carried off and sold as slaves. People, who call themselves 
civilized, and are found guilty of such atrocities, inflict the 
blackest colour on the name of civilization. Considering 

* British Agents. 

t Wife of Sqiwito, Sachem of Saco. Hub. Nar. page 291. 


such infamous deeds of the whites, \ve cannot so much won 
der at the saying of a great admirer of savage life, viz. that 
" every attempt at civilization, is another remove from inno 
cence and happiness." This was neither a Banks, nor a So- 
lander; but, not a less greater philosopher. 

The Pequot Indians had as little cause fer, the war of 
their destruction, as any ever had, according to all accounts, 
but their history, could it have been written, would doubt 
less have differed considerably from ours. 

Notwithstanding, on a careful and candid examination of 
relative circumstances, it must be admitted that the sar 
casms of the present age, cast upon our Forefathers, ema 
nate, generally, from inconsiderate minds, and such as are 
unacquainted with the history of those times; or, who read 
with prejudice, and thereby imbibe it more strongly from 
the story of retaliation. Whoever views clearly, what must 
have been the situation, and peculiar circumstances of our 
Forefathers, in a hideous wilderness, will not reproach 
them so frequently. Nothing but alarms and strange ap 
pearances* were presented to their view. They soon learn 
ed that they could put no dependance on the words of their 
savage neighbours. If any of them were true to their prom 
ise, no dependance could be made on them by reason of the 
treachery of others. The early supply of arms, which the 
Indians received (see page 18, Note,) was a dreadful stroke 
to the English. In times of dissatisfaction, no one could 
venture out of his door, or sleep within, without fear of be 
ing shot down, or tomahawked in bed. But in times when 
every appearance of friendship was manifested, was the fa 
tal blow struck. When Indian towns were destroyed, no 
doubt, many innocent ones were slain, as was the case when 
the English towns were destroyed, nor could it well be avoid 
ed, for who could designate? or even if designation could 
be made, in the mean time the battle is lost; Therefore, 
whoever undertakes to decide at this distant period, where 
the fault lies, if he contemplates a moment, will find himself 
obliged to answer harder questions, than the poet asks ia 
the lines which follow. 

" But where s th extreme of vice, was ne er agreed; 

Ask -where s the North? at York, tis on the Tweed; 
In Scotland, at the Orcades; and there, 

At Greenland, Zerabla, or the Lord knows where/ 




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